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Updated: June 13, 2004


The greatest battles fought by soldiers and warriors who have become infamous and immortal as a result of the great victories they achieved; their bravery, perseverance, determination, cunning, tactics, sacrifices and fortitude have written the stories of their battles and their names on the sand and winds of time. History is kind and forgiving to the victor, but forgetful and blind to those defeated, for it is the victor who is seen as right and just and who will write history to suit their own cause. They have used the power of force of their armies to invade, conquer and control; to eliminate, destroy enemies or force their will upon them, be they individuals or nations; to protect their countries against agressors; and to change the course of history by bestowing power of control upon others or eliminating those that don't agree with them.

Zulu-British War 1879 (South Africa). The Zulu war of 1879 finally ended by bloodshed 2 years of political activity by the British designed to remove the last challenge to their Imperial power in southern Africa. Zululand had become a powerful kingdom under the rule of the warlord king Shaka in the early 19th century, but by 1870 European colonial expansion was starting to hem it in. The British were expanding from the south in Natal and the Boers, Dutch settlers were expanding from the west in the area know as the Transvaal which the British annexed to their future cost in 1877. The British had seized their South African colonies during the Napoleonic Wars but these possessions had been plagued with trouble due to violence between the British, the Boers and local African kingdoms. The British plan was to unite black and white under their rule, but first the Zulu kingdom had to be removed. At this time the British were fighting many small wars in various colonies and did not want another war in a distant colony. Despite this the British High Commissioner Sir Henry Bartle Frere and the Army Commander, Lieutenant-General Sir Frederic Thesiger soon to be the new Lord Chelmsford, decided that war with the Zulus was unavoidable. Using the delay in communications between London and themselves they set in motion what they hope would be a small quick war. Using a minor border incident as justification Zulu representatives were summoned to a meeting of the Border Commission which actually found in the Zulus favour but determined to promote the idea of a Zulu threat a condition was imposed on the settlement that the Zulus would have to give up their military system which was key to their culture, a condition the King Cetshwayo could never accept. Lord Chelmsford decided to invade Zululand with 3 columns leaving 2 more to protect Natal and the Transvaal. He expected the Zulus to behave like the other African Armies he had fought and prove elusive and unwilling to fight pitched battles this was to prove a serious mistake. British forces crossed the ford at Rorke's Drift on the 11th Jan 1879 and on the 22nd January the British forces divided by Chelmsford were taken by surprise and nearly destroyed by the Zulu warriors at the battle of Isandhlwana, one of the few times in the history of the British Army that is has been defeated by a native Army. The British forces holding the Ford at Rorke's Drift quickly came under heavy attack by Zulu reserves leading to one of the most famous battles in British history. When news reached Britain of the disaster at Isandhlwana it caused an uproar. In March 1879 the second phase of the war began Chelmsford reorganised his troops and awaited promised reinforcements from Britain which would take several months to arrive. With irregular horsemen harassing the Zulu's and an abortive attack on Hlobane mountain which cost 15 officers and 79 men dead the war dragged on as Chelmsford awaited fresh troops. The war began to turn to favour the British as a Zulu attack on the British camp at the battle of Khambula was repulsed on 29th March 1879. In the aftermath of the battle it was clear that the Zulu Impi would never take to the battlefield with such confidence again and the way was clear for a second and as fresh British troops started to arrive the final invasion of Zululand May to July 1879 began. King Cetshwayo sent messengers to the British asking for terms of surrender but the British demanded unconditional surrender and Cetshwayo made his last stand at the battle of Ulundi 4 July 1879. After this final defeat the Zulu nation was smashed and split up into 13 kingdoms which were given to pro British Africans only for it to dissolve into civil war a few years later, the British pulled out of Zululand soon after the battle and Cetshwayo was hunted down and exiled. After a brief return to try and halt the civil war Cetshwayo was defeated and later died in 1884. Zululand is now part of the Republic of South Africa.
Rorke's Drift: After the Zulu victory at Isandlwana on the afternoon of January 22, 4,000 Zulu warriors attacked 150-155 British troops and volunteers that night at the Rorke's Drift outpost. The vastly outnumbered British force held off multiple attacks and the Zulus withdrew on January 23rd
Isandlwana: About 20,000 Zulu warriors defeated a British-led force near the great rock of Isandlwana. Of the 1,774 troops involved (of which about 700 were British and the rest African auxiliaries and European locals) about 380 survived. After the battle, King Cetshwayo kaMpande's half-brother, Prince Dabulamanzi kaMpande, contravened the king's orders and attacked the Mission Station at Rorke's Drift.
Khambula: Fought March 29, 1879, when Colonel Colonel Henry Evelyn Wood V.C., with 2,000 British and native auxiliaries, was attacked in his laager by a Zulu impi. The Zulus were repulsed with very heavy loss, and pursued for seven miles. The British lost 83 killed and wounded. The defeat practically broke King Cetshwayo's power.
Ulundi: The final battle of the Zulu War ended with a decisive British victory. The last battle of the war, fought July, 1879, between 5,000 British, under Lord Chelmsford, and about 20,000 Zulus. The Zulus were routed with a loss of over 1,500, the British losing only 15 killed and 78 wounded.    

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Afghan-British War, First 1839 - 1842. The First Afghan-British War (part of the Great Game between England and Russia) centered around British attempts to replace the emir of Afghanistan because of fears of growing Russian influence. The British were defeated by harsh conditions and strong opposition. In 1839 the British deposed the emir of Afghanistan, Dost Muhammad, and replaced him with someone more friendly to the British. However, fierce Afghanistan opposition and difficult weather conditions finally forced the British to evacuate. On January 6, 1842 a retreating force of troops and civilians were annihilated as they left Kabul. On September 14 a British army retaliating for the January 6 action defeated Afghan forces and re-occupied Kabul. In October the British army left Afghanistan and Dost Muhammad was restored. With the failure of the Burnes mission (1837), the governor general of India, Lord Auckland, ordered an invasion of Afghanistan, with the object of restoring shah Shuja (also Shoja), who had ruled Afghanistan from 1803 to 1809. From the point of the view of the British, the First Anglo-Afghan War (often called "Auckland's Folly") was an unmitigated disaster. The war demonstrated the ease of overrunning Afghanistan and the difficulty of holding it. An army of British and Indian troops set out from the Punjab in December 1838 and by late March 1839 had reached Quetta. By the end of April the British had taken Qandahar without a battle. In July, after a two-month delay in Qandahar, the British attacked the fortress of Ghazni, overlooking a plain that leads to India, and achieved a decisive victory over the troops of Dost Mohammad, which were led by one of his sons. The Afghans were amazed at the taking of fortified Ghazni, and Dost Mohammad found his support melting away. The Afghan ruler took his few loyal followers and fled across the passes to Bamian, and ultimately to Bukhara, where he was arrested, and in August 1839 Shuja was enthroned again in Kabul after a hiatus of almost 30 years. Some British troops returned to India, but it soon became clear that Shuja's rule could only be maintained by the presence of British forces. Garrisons were established in Jalalabad, Ghazni, Kalat-iGhilzai (Qalat), Qandahar, and at the passes to Bamian. Omens of disaster for the British abounded. Opposition to the British-imposed rule of Shuja began as soon as he assumed the throne, and the power of his government did not extend beyond the areas controlled by the force of British arms. Dost Mohammad escaped from prison in Bukhara and returned to Afghanistan to lead his followers against the British and their Afghan protege. In a battle at Parwan on November 2, 1840, Dost Mohammad had the upper hand, but the next day he surrendered to the British in Kabul. He was deported to India with the greater part of his family. Sir William Macnaghten, one of the principal architects of the British invasion, wrote to Auckland two months later, urging good treatment for the deposed Afghan leader. Shuja did not succeed in garnering the support of the Afghan chiefs on his own, and the British could not, or would not, sustain their subsidies. When the cash payments to tribal chiefs were curtailed in 1841, there was a major revolt by the Ghilzai. By October 1841 disaffected Afghan tribes were flocking to the support of Dost Mohammad's son, Muhammad Akbar, in Bamian. Barnes was murdered in November 1841, and a few days later the commissariat fell into the hands of the Afghans. Macnaghten, having tried first to bribe and then to negotiate with the tribal leaders, was killed at a meeting with the tribal chiefs in December. On January 1, 1842, the British in Kabul and a number of Afghan chiefs reached an agreement that provided for the safe exodus of the entire British garrison and its dependents from Afghanistan. Unfortunately, the British would not wait for an Afghan escort to be assembled, and the Ghilzai and allied tribes had not been among the 18 chiefs who had signed the agreement. On January 6 the precipitate retreat by some 4,500 British and Indian troops with 12,000 camp followers began and, as they struggled through the snowbound passes, the British were attacked by Ghilzai warriors. Although a Dr. W. Brydon is usually cited as the only survivor of the march to Jalalabad (out of more than 15,000 who undertook the retreat), in fact a few more survived as prisoners and hostages. Shuja remained in power only a few months and was assassinated in April 1842. The destruction of the British garrison prompted brutal retaliation by the British against the Afghans and touched off yet another power struggle among potential rulers of Afghanistan. In the fall of 1842 British forces from Qandahar and Peshawar entered Kabul long enough to rescue the British prisoners and burn the great bazaar. All that remained of the British occupation of Afghanistan was a ruined market and thousands of dead (one estimate puts the total killed at 20,000). Although the foreign invasion did give the Afghan tribes a temporary sense of unity they had lacked before, the accompanying loss of life (one estimate puts the total killed at 25,000) and property was followed by a bitterness and resentment of foreign influence that lasted well into the twentieth century and may have accounted for much of the backlash against the modernization attempts of later Afghan monarchs.

Afghan-British War, Second 1878 - 1880 The British invaded Afghanistan in November 1878 because the emir, Sher Ali (1825-1879) negotiated with the Russians and refused to negotiate with the British. The British left the country after their victory at Kandahar. The disaster of the First Anglo-Afghan War continued to haunt the British for decades, and the 70 years following the defeat of 1842 were a period of extraordinary vacillation in British policy toward Afghanistan. Not only were political perspectives different in Delhi and London, but there were also changes in government. Imperialists favored the Forward Policy, which held that the defense of India required pushing its frontiers to the natural barrier of the Hindu Kush so that Afghanistan (or at least parts of it, such as Herat) would be brought entirely under British control. In 1874 Benjamin Disraeli became prime minister of Britain and in 1876 a new viceroy (Lord Lytton) was dispatched to Delhi with orders to reinstate the Forward Policy. Sher Ali (also Shir 'Ali), the emir of Afghanistan, rejected a second British demand for a British mission in Kabul (1876), arguing that if he agreed the Russians might demand the same right. After tension between Russia and Britain in Europe ended with the June 1878 Congress of Berlin, Russia turned its attention to Central Asia. In the summer of 1878 Russia sent an uninvited diplomatic mission to Kabul, headed by Russia's General Stolyetov, setting in motion the train of events that led to the Second Anglo-Afghan War. Sher Ali tried to keep the Russian mission out but failed. The Russian envoys arrived in Kabul on July 22, 1878, and on August 14 the British demanded that Sher Ali accept a British mission. Sher Ali had not responded by August 17 when his son and heir died, throwing the court into mourning. When no reply was received, the British dispatched an envoy, Sir Neville Chamberlain, with a small military force, which was refused permission to cross the Khyber Pass by Afghan troops. The British presumably considered this an insult, but more likely it was viewed at the highest levels as a fine pretext for implementing the Forward Policy and taking over most of Afghanistan. The British delivered an ultimatum to Sher Ali, demanding an explanation of his actions. The Afghan response was viewed by the British as unsatisfactory, and on November 21, 1978, British troops entered Afghanistan at three points. Sher Ali, having turned in desperation to the Russians, received no assistance from them. Appointing his son, Yaqub, regent, Sher Ali left to seek the assistance of the tsar. Advised by the Russians to abandon this effort and to return to his country, Sher Ali returned to Mazare Sharif, where he died in February 1879. With British forces occupying much of the country, Yaqub signed the Treaty of Gandamak in May 1879 to prevent British invasion of the rest of Afghanistan. According to this agreement and in return for an annual subsidy and loose assurance of assistance in case of foreign aggression, Yaqub agreed to British control of Afghan foreign affairs, British representatives in Kabul and other locations, extension of British control to the Khyber and Michni passes, and the cession of various frontier areas to the British. The British resident in Kabul, Sir Louis Cavagnari, was assassinated on September 3, 1879, just two months after he arrived. British troops trudged back over the mountain passes and the Afghan uprising against the British was, unlike that of the First Anglo-Afghan War, foiled in October 1879 with the reoccupation of Kabul. Yaqub abdicated. Despite the success of the military venture, by March 1880 even the proponents of the Forward Policy were aware that defeating the Afghan tribes did not mean controlling them. Although British policymakers had briefly thought simply to dismember Afghanistan a few months earlier, they now feared they were heading for the same disasters that befell their predecessors at the time of the First Anglo-Afghan War. Just as the British interventionists were reaching this conclusion, the Liberal Party won an electoral victory in March 1880. This assured the end of the Forward Policy, which had been a major campaign issue. The second British venture into Afghanistan resulted in about 2500 British and colonials killed with some 1500 Afghans killed.
Peiwar Kotal, fought December 2, 1878, between a British force, 3,200 strong, under Sir Frederick Roberts, with 13 guns, and about 18,000 Afghans, with 11 guns, strongly posted in the Kotal. By an able, but difficult turning movement, the pass was crossed, and the Afghans completely defeated, with heavy loss, all their guns being captured. The British lost 20 killed and 7 8 wounded.  
Maiwand, fought July 27, 1880, between a small British force, with 6 guns, under General Burrows, and the Afghan army, under Ayub Khan. A Bombay native regiment was broken by a Ghazi rush, and although the 66th Regiment fought magnificently, the British were routed, with a loss of 32 officers and 939 men killed, and 17 officers and 151 men wounded. The survivors escaped with difficulty to Kandahar.
Kandahar, after the defeat at the battle of Maiwand, General Roberts marched over 300 miles in 22 days from Kabul to the British garrison at Kandahar. On September 1 he attacked and defeated the Afghan forces ending the war.  

The Third Afghan War 1919. Operations in the Third Afghan War ranged along much of the border area. Fighting occurred in Chitral, in the Khyber Pass, through the Kurram Valley, in the Tochi Valley, in Waziristan, and in Baluchistan. Although the scenes of fighting were not new, this was not simply a refight of earlier wars and frontier campaigns. Strategically, the Afghans and their Pathan allies took the offensive at the outset on each front except in Southern Baluchistan, where a pre-emptive British strike into Afghanistan forestalled any planned or potential Afghan incursions into India. The only other front on which the British conducted significant offensive operations was in the Khyber Pass, where British and Indian troops advanced into Afghanistan to seize the town of Dakka. ensing post-World War I British fatigue, the frailty of British positions along the Afghan border, unrest in British India, and confidence in the consolidation of his power at home, Amanullah, the new ruler of Afghanistan, suddenly attacked the British in May 1919 in two thrusts. Although, Amanullah had written the British viceroy, rejecting British control of his foreign policy and declaring Afghanistan fully independent, the British were taken by surprise. Afghan forces achieved some success in the early days of the war as Pashtun tribesmen from both sides of the border joined forces with them. The military skirmishes soon ended in stalemate as the British recovered from their initial surprise. The war did not last long, however, because both sides were soon ready to sue for peace; the Afghans were unwilling to sustain continued British air attacks on Kabul and Jalalabad, and the British were unwilling to take on an Afghan land war so soon after the bloodletting of World War I. The month long war resulted in about 1000 Afghan dead and 2000 British and colonial deaths. What the Afghans did not gain in battle they gained ultimately at the negotiating table. The British virtually dictated the terms of the 1919 Rawalpindi Agreement, a temporary armistice agreement that did provide-somewhat ambiguously-for Afghan autonomy in foreign affairs. Before signing the final document with the British, the Afghans concluded a treaty of friendship with the new Bolshevik regime in the Soviet Union; Afghanistan thereby became one of the first nations to recognize the Soviet government, and a "special relationship" evolved between the two governments. The second round of Anglo-Afghan negotiations (1921) on a final peace were inconclusive. Although both sides were ready to agree on Afghan independence in foreign affairs, as mentioned in the previous agreement, the two nations disagreed on the issue that had plagued Anglo-Afghan relations for decades and would continue to cause friction for many more, that is, authority over the Pashtun tribes on both sides of the Durand Line. The British refused to agree to Afghan control over tribes on the British side of the line, while the Afghans insisted on it. The Afghans regarded the 1921 agreement as an informal one.

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Bohemian War (1420-1434) Long rebellion by the Hussite Bohemians against the authority of the Holy Roman Empire, at least as represented by the German ruling class, and the Church. The rebellion was triggered by the mistreatment of John Huss, principal of the University of Prague, and a theologian who opposed the worldliness of the church. He attended the council of Constance (1415) having been given a safe conduct by the Emperor Sigismund. However, the council condemned him as an heretic, persuaded Sigismund to betray him, and burnt him at the stake. This outrage fanned the flames of revolt in Bohemia. Ordinarily, the Bohemians would have had no chance against the Imperial forces, and they were nearly always outnumbers. The odds were altered by the Bohemia tactics - the use of the 'wagenburg', whereby the army marched with heavily fortified wagons. When battle was close, the wagons were formed up into a square, the gaps fortified, and the Germans found themselves attacking a fortification. The Bohemians were also the first to use large numbers of hand guns. The clumsy hand guns of the time were much better suited to use from within the wagons than on the open battlefield. Once the enemy attacks had been repulsed, the troops within the 'wagonburg' opened sally points and counter-attacked the by now demoralised enemy. Five Imperial invasions of Bohemia failed, and the Bohemians were even able to mount offensive actions over their borders. The rebellion finally ended after the battle of Lipan (26 June 1434), where the moderate element amongst the Bohemians, having gained good terms from the Emperor, defeated the extremist 'Taborite' party, ending the rebellion.

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Chremonidean War, c.266-262 B.C., (Greece) Revolt of Athens and Sparta against Macedonia rule, in part prompted by rivalry between the successors of Alexander the Great, which led Ptolemy II of Egypt to promise aid to Athens and Sparta in their revolt against Antigonus II of Macedonia. Sparta was defeated in 265 B.C., while Athens surrendered after a two-year long siege by the Macedonians (264-262 B.C.) Antigonus II (Antigonus Gonatas), c. 320–239 B.C., king of Macedon, son of Demetrius I. He took the title king on his father's death (283) but made good his claim only by defeating the Gauls in Thrace and by taking Macedon in 276. His rule was very troubled; Pyrrhus attacked him, and so did Ptolemy II. A confederation of Greek cities headed by Athens waged (c. 266–c.262 B.C.) the so-called Chremonidean War against him. Antigonus won the war, captured Athens, and restored the Macedonian state. However, the Achaean League, under Aratus, gained power c. 251. Nevertheless Antigonus maintained himself and for a brief period united Greece. He was himself a scholar and a patron of philosophy and poetry. Upon his death he was succeeded by his son, Demetrius II. The Chremonidean War (c. 267-263/2 BC), after the name of the statesman who brought Athens into the anti-Macedonian alliance, ended with the defeat of the allies and the complete surrender of Athens. Antigonos did not forget the role that Ptolemaic Egypt had played in his troubles and pushed the power of Egypt out of the Aegean during the course of the 250s. Chremonidean War: Ptolemy II unsuccessfully supported Athens and Sparta against Antigonus II of Macedonia.

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Thirty Years War (1618-48) One of the most devastating wars in European history. The Thirty Years War began as a conflict between German Protestants and German Catholics, that slowly expanded to include most of the rest of Europe, with first the Protestant powers joining in to protect their co-religionists in Germany, and then Catholic France supporting the protestant cause as part of the long running Bourbon-Hapsburg rivalry (and before that the Valois-Hapsburg rivalry). The war caused massive destruction in Germany, and may have reduced the population of the area by half, in part because much of the fighting was carried out by mercenary armies that plundered every area they crossed. Fighting started over the election of a new king for Bohemia, where there was an elective monarchy. The initial outbreak, in 1618, was a revolt against Hapsburg rule, triggered by the election of Archduke Ferdinand of Styria as heir to the childless Matthias, who was both king of Bohemia and Holy Roman Emperor. The Protestants seized power after the Defenestration of Prague (22 May 1618), and raised an army, in response to which the Emperor raised his own armies, and was engaged in indecisive war with the Bohemians. On 20 March 1619, Matthias died, leaving both thrones empty. The Bohemian electors chose Frederick V, the elector Palatinate, while the Imperial electors chose Matthias's cousin, Ferdinand of Styria, who became Emperor Ferdinand II. The fighting over Bohemia was decided in 1620. The Evangelical League (of Protestant Princes) declared neutrality, while the Catholic League sided firmly with the Emperor. At the Battle of the White Hill (8 November 1620), the Imperial forces routed the Bohemians, deposing Frederick in Bohemia, and ending the Bohemia phase of the war.
The war now moved into the Palatinate phase (1620-25). Frederick was initially successful against Imperial forces, reaching a high point at the
battle of Mingolsheim, where Count Ernst von Mansfeld defeated Johan Tserclaes, Count Tilly, but the success was shortlived, and the protestant defeat at Stadtholn (6 August 1623), marked the end of true end of the Palatinate phase, leaving Frederick in exile, and Maximilian of Bavaria as the elector Palatinate. The apparent collapse of the Protestant position, and the triumph of the Hapsburgs now led to an international reaction. By the Treaty of Compiegne (10 June 1624), France and Holland allied against the Hapsburgs, soon to be joined by England, Sweden, Denmark, Savoy and Venice.
The international intervention now led to the Danish phase of the war (1625-29). Ferdinand II raised a new mercenary army, led by Count Albrecht von Wallenstein, initially to defend Hapsburg lands, but in June 1625 his commission was expanded to cover the entire Empire. This was made necessary by the invasion of Christian IV of Denmark, launched in the summer of 1625, although little of importance happened until the next year. First, France withdrew from the war after a Huguenot revolt in France, and then the Imperial forces inflicted a series of defeats on Christian of Denmark. By the summer of 1629 it again looked as if the Hapsburg-Imperial side was victorious, but once again the French took a hand. Cardinal Richelieu negotiated a peace between Sweden and Poland, which allowed Gustavus Adolphus of Sweden to enter the war on the Protestant-anti Hapsburg side.
The Swedish phase of the war (1630-35) saw more success for the anti-imperial side. Pressure from within Germany led to the dismissal of Wallenstein (August 1630), and his replacement as commander by Tilly, whose main success was the capture of Magdeburg (May 1631), after which he suffered a series of defeats, in particular at Beitenfeld (17 September 1631), and at the Battle of the Lech (14 April 1632), where he was killed. Wallenstein was once again put in charge of the Imperial forces, and although he was promptly defeated at Lutzen (16 November 1632), Gustavus Adolphus was killed during the battle. There followed a quiet phase, marked mainly by the fall of Wallenstein, who was dismissed for attempting to negotiate a peaceful settlement (1633), and finally assassinated by his own officers (25 February 1634). Defeat in battle at Nordlingen (6 September 1634) effectively ended Swedish intervention, and forcing Richelieu and France to openly take control of the Protestant war effort.
The final, French, phase of the war (1634-48), lost it's religious significance, and was in effect a struggle
between France and Spain, fought out mostly in Germany. Spain still had footholds to the east of France in the Spanish Netherlands (modern Belgium) and Spanish Lombardy (northern Italy), and the French aim was to remove these Spanish outposts. Initially, the Imperial position was strong, and there was even a shortlived invasion of France (1636), but the tide of the war slowly turned against the Imperial side. The fourteen years of the French phase of the war eventually ended in exhaustion, Germany in particular having suffered year after year of campaigning. The Peace of Westphalia (24 October 1648), which ended the war, saw Hapsburg power much reduced. Alsace became part of France, while Sweden gained much of the German baltic coast, while the Emperor had to recognised the sovereign rights of the German princes, and equality between Protestant and Catholic states, while Spain, in a separate peace, finally acknowledged the independence of the Dutch Republic.

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War of Devolution (1667-68) War between France and Spain. Louis XIV of France had married Marie Therese, daughter of Philip IV of Spain, whose dowry had not been paid. Louis claimed the Spanish Netherlands (modern Belgium) as his wives inheritance instead of her dowry. Fighting was started by the French led by Turenne, who invaded the Spanish Netherlands on 24 May 1667 and successfully occupied much of Flanders and Hainault. The following year an French army led by Conde invaded Franche-Comte, also Spanish, and occupied it in fourteen days. The Dutch, worried by the French advance, organized the Triple Alliance with England and Sweden, and during the spring of 1668 the Triple Alliance demanded peace, under which pressure Louis entered negotiations, before agreeing to peace by the Treaty of Aix-la-Chapelle (2 May 1668), in which he returned all of Franche-Comte and most of the Spanish Netherlands, although he retained a number of fortified towns on the border of the Spanish Netherlands, and gained some strongholds within Flanders itself. The main issue, the French desire to remove all Spanish holdings on their eastern borders, remained unanswered and fighting resumed in the Dutch War (1672-78) and beyond.

ched southward where they were meet  at Prestonpans by General  Sir John Cope and a Royal army of 3,000 men  On the 21st September.  The Jacobite's charged the  government troops and routed them. hundreds of Government troops were killed or wounded and over 1,000 were captured. with the Jacobite losses less than 150.  With this victory Charles Edward Stuart and the Jacobite army marched southwards into England capturing the towns of Carlisle, Penrith, Lancaster and Preston and getting as far as Nottingham before lack of supplies and new recruits forced him to heads back to Scotland. In 1685 when James II set out to obtain religious toleration for Catholics in Ireland, he had no idea that in less than four years he would be leading an army of Catholics against William of Orange. Like James, Ireland was subject to the effects of European events that were wholly beyond its control. When William of Orange precipitated the Glorious Revolution in 1688 and dethroned James II, Ireland was the least of his concerns as he engaged in a power struggle with King Louis XIV. Pressured by France, James arrived in Ireland with hope of regaining his throne. In many respects, the Jacobite army was a French pawn to be used against William. Although the war in Ireland was only a secondary front in a much larger war between the European powers, the result determined the political and religious freedoms of those who would live in Ireland for the following two centuries. "The two sides were more evenly matched that in any other Irish war" (Byrne 487). Because victory was guaranteed to neither side, the Jacobite war is one of the most critical points in Irish history.
When Charles II died in 1685, James II became the King of England, Scotland, and Ireland, and the Catholic revival began. Securing legal and enduring toleration for his Catholic co-religionists was James' primary objective from 1685-1690 (Maguire 46). Consequently, less than six months after ascending to the throne, James made Catholic champion Richard Talbot earl of Tyrconnell. Within two years of assuming command of an Irish army regiment, Tyrconnell was appointed lord deputy of Ireland on 12 February 1687. While in command of his regiment, Tyrconnell catholicized and enlarged its composition by adding over eight hundred catholic soldiers (Maguire 46). By the time James appointed Tyrconnell lord deputy, 67 percent of the soldiers were Catholic and only a few Protestant officers had not been dismissed. Tyrconnell, acting as lord deputy, also filled important civil posts with Catholics. Within a year after Tyrconnell's own appointment, a majority of judges, magistrates, and the central administration were also Catholic (Maguire 49). As Catholic control increased, so did the fears of the Irish and English Protestants. Irish Protestants feared losing their land. In England, Ireland was viewed as a blueprint or precursor of James' plans for England (Maguire 34). Though James' capable army could suppress any local disorder, civil unrest grew in England and the threat of civil war concerned the English parliament (Maguire 36). The possibility of a civil war in England sparked fears in the Dutch Republic as well. William of Orange, James' son in law and national leader of the Dutch Republic, had long hoped to supplement his forces with England's in order to mobilize against France's Louis XIV. A civil war would have left England in disarray and unable to contribute to William's campaign against King Louis. A civil war in England, an English coalition with France, an attack by Louis, and James choosing a Catholic as the successor to the throne instead of William's wife Mary, were all possibilities that spurred William and his forces to proceed into England and land in Devon on 5 November, 1688 (Maguire 37). To the Tory and Whig party members in England, William's arrival was not a surprise. Fearing civil war and chaos as well, leading Whigs and Tories invited William to take control of the country in July (Maguire xii). In September, William wrote the Declaration which stated his reasons for invading England and then distributed it throughout Europe. James' decision to flee to France on 23 December 1688 and Williams' bloodless ascension to the throne completed what historians call, "The Glorious Revolution." William's concern about Ireland after gaining control of the throne remained minimal until James landed at Kinsale, Co. Cork in March of 1689 with French troops and munitions. To James, Ireland was the starting point from which he could regain the throne in England. Initially, William viewed Ireland only as a hurdle that had to be negotiated before he could concentrate on France and his rival Louis XIV. James' arrival in Ireland with French support forced William to focus his attention on the country that would become the battleground of the "Cogadh Da' Ri', " or war of the two kings (Maguire 61).
When James arrived in Ireland, "he found in Ireland a Catholic body politic loyal to the Crown but not loyal to the Crown's wider English interests" (Maguire 57). The Jacobite Parliament that James had indirectly created demanded the repeal of the Restoration land settlement. The Irish people cared less for the highly political power struggle between James, Louis, and William, and more about the local power struggle between Catholics and Protestants. Granted, William claimed to be the savior of Protestantism, and James, the supporter of Catholicism. Both, however, were proponents of tolerance and would not have begun the war in the name of religion alone. In the eyes of the divided Irish people, the outcome of the war would determine religious freedoms (Maguire 139). The common people of Ireland had few hopes of owning land regardless of what religion the country's leaders subscribed to (Maguire 139). Those few families who owned land, however, had considerable power to control of religious freedoms of the people. From 1689 to 1691, war engulfed Ireland. James, who had never intended to release Ireland from the crown's control and still wished to return to England as King, had a difficult time leading the country.

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French and Indian War (1754-1763) The fourth and final French and Indian War, fought between Britain and France over control of North America, that eventually became part of the Seven Years War. The French had colonies in Canada and Lousiana, and were attempting to link them by taking control of the Ohio Valley. This would have encircled the British colonies on the coast, and stopped any expansion on their part. The war begin with conflict between the French in the Ohio Valley and the Virginians, led by George Washington, who was forced to withdraw by the French. The war started well for the French. A British campaign in 1755 led by General Braddock met with disaster, and saw the death of Braddock, while 1756 saw the French led by General de Montcalm captured Fort Oswego and Fort George and 1757 saw the fall of Fort William Henry. The war turned in 1758, first with the capture of Louisburg and then Fort Ticonderoga, followed on 13 September 1759 by the Battle of the Plains of Abraham (Canada), in which General de Montcalm was killed and by the fall of Quebec on 18 September. Finally the French lost Montreal (8 September 1760), ending their interest in Canada, and removing the French threat to the American colonies. The English occupation of Canada was confirmed by the Treaty of Paris (1763).
Seven Years War (1756-1763) was the first global conflict. It had two main fronts. The first, in Europe, was the hostility between Prussia and
Austria, still simmering after the War of the Austrian Succession , which expanded through alliances to include all of Europe. The second was the colonial rivalries between Britain, France and Spain, known in America as the French and Indian War, which begin in 1754 with conflict over control of the Ohio valley. The Seven Years War started in a flurry of diplomatic activity which resulted in a diplomatic revolution and the reversal of the alliances of the War of the Austrian Succession. First Britain and Prussia formed an alliance (January 1756), followed by France and Austria, who had been traditional enemies. The fighting started with Frederick II of Prussia's invasion and defeat of Saxony (August-October 1756), although the main conflict did not start until the following year. In January 1757 the Holy Roman Empire, led by Maria Theresa of Habsburg, empress of Austria (although her husband Francis I was Holy Roman Emperor), declared war on Prussia, who now found herself surrounded by enemies, with much greater populations and resources. Frederick's response was to invade Bohemia, where he defeated the Austrians at the Battle of Prague (6 May 1757), although he was himself defeated at Kolin (18 June 1757) and forced to withdraw, although he then defeated a French and Austrian army in Saxony at the Battle of Rossbach (5 November 1757), and an Austrian army invading Silesia at the battle of Leuthen (5 December 1757. The same year saw Clive of India defeat the French in India at the Battle of Plassey (23 June), and the French occupy Hanover, having defeated the duke of Cumberland at Hastenbeck, forcing him to sign the Convention of Kloster-Zeven. The French occupation of Hanover was shortlived, and a joint British and Hanoverian army defeated a Franco-Austrian one at Crefeld (June 1758), followed two months later by Frederick's victory over the Russians at Zorndorg (August 1758), halting their advance. The Austrians were able to inflict a rare defeat on Frederick at Hochkirck (October 1758), but failed to take advantage of it. 1759 saw Prussia on the back back foot, but Britain triumphant. Frederick was defeated by the Russians at Kunersdorf (August) and the Austrians at Maxen (November). In contrast, Britain was victorious on land, at sea, and in the colonies. August saw the Battle of Minden (1 August), where a combined British and Hanoverian force defeated a new French attack, and the naval Battle of Lagos (7-18 August 1759, off Portugal), where a French fleet intended for an invasion of England was defeated. September saw the capture of Quebec from the French, and 20 November the naval battle of Quiberon Bay (Brittany), the defeat of a French fleet intended for an invasion of Scotland. British success continued in 1760, with victory over the French in India at the Battle of Wandiwash (Madras, 22 January), which ended French hopes of a victory in India. It also saw some success for Frederick II, despite a short occupation of Berlin by the Russians in October. He defeated the Austrians at Torgau (3 November), although loses were heavy on both sides. 1761 continued in the same vein, with the British successfull at Pondicherry (January), and the Germans defeating the French at Villinghause (15 July). At this point, the nature of the war was changed by the death of two monarchs. First was the death of George II, and the accession of George III, who ended British aid to Prussia. Just when it looked like Prussia was doomed, Tsar Peter III succeeded to the Russian Throne (January 1762). The new Tsar was a great admirer of Frederick II, and quickly moved to end the war between Prussia and Russia (Treaty of St. Petersburg, 5 May 1762). The war now turned decisivly towards Britain and Prussia. Frederick II defeated the Austrians at Burkersdorf (21 July 1762) and Reichenbach (16 August), regaining all of his lost territory, while the British captured Havana and Manila from the Spanish. Peace between Britain and France was restored by the Treaties of Fontainebleau (3 Novemebr 1763) and of Paris (10 February 1763), in which Britain restored Cuba and the Philippines to Spain, while retained her conquests from the French in Canada, America and India. Five days later the Treaty of Hubertusberg (15 February 1763) saw peace between Austrian, Prussia and Saxony, confirming Silesia as Prussian territory. The Seven Years War saw Britain established as the greatest colonial power, with control over India and North America seemingly secured, while Prussia emerged as the greatest power on the Continent, and the dominant force inside Germany, reducing still further the power of the Holy Roman Empire and Habsburg Austria. Frederick II of Prussia (The Great) emerges as the most remarkable leader of the war. Prussia was the smallest of the main combatants, and yet Frederick survived year after year of campaigning, and despite coming near to defeat he emerged triumphant.

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The Northern Wars (1655-1661) is a name sometimes used for the series of conflicts between Sweden and its adversaries Poland (The Deluge, 1655-1660), Russia (1656-1661), Brandenburg-Prussia (1657-1660), the Holy Roman Empire (1657-60) and Denmark (1657-1658, 1658-1660). The same wars are sometimes referred differently in other countries: for example in Poland The Deluge sometimes is a name for the series of war against Sweden, Brandenburg, Muscovy (Russia), Siebenbürgen and Cossacks. The Great Northern War (1700-1721) was the war fought between a coalition of Russia, Denmark-Norway and Saxony-Poland (from 1715 also Prussia and Hanover) on one side and Sweden on the other side from 1700 to 1721. It started by a coordinated attack on Sweden by the coalition in 1700 and ended 1721 with the conclusion of the Treaty of Nystad, and the Stockholm treaties. As a result of the war, Russia supplanted Sweden as the dominant Power on the Baltic Sea and became a major player in European politics. At the start of the eighteenth century, Sweden was a European superpower. The military reforms and victories of Gustavus Adolphus had left her the dominant power in the Baltic, with conquests all around the Baltic and in Northern Germany. In 1698-1699, Swedens neighbours formed a series of secret alliances against her, intending to reduce Sweden's power. Peter I the Great of Russia, Augustus II of Poland (also Elector of Saxony), and Frederick IV of Denmark saw Sweden as vulnerable due to the youth of the new king of Sweden, Charles XII, then sixteen. Fighting started in April 1700 with the Danish invasion of Schleswig, owned by the duke of Holstein-Gottorp, an ally of Sweden, and was followed in June by an Polish-Saxon invasion of Livonia and in August by a Russian invasion of Ingria. Charles responded on 4 August 1700 with a bold invasion of Zealand, taking his army through dangerous seas and marching on Copenhagen, forcing the Danes out of the war. By the Treaty of Travendal (18 August 1700), Denmark agreed to return Schelswig and not to fight against Sweden. In October he crossed to Livonia with a tiny army of 8,000 men. Once there he decided to march to Narva, besieged by Peter the Great with 40,000 men. As Charles approached, Peter fled, leaving his army to fight alone, and on 20 November 1700 the Russian army was destroyed in the battle of Narva, fought in a snowstorm. Over the winter of 1700/1, Charles prepared to march on Livonia, where on 17 June 1701 he defeated a joint Russian, Polish and Saxon army at the battle of Narva relieving the year long siege. Charles then turned on Poland, invading in July 1701 and defeated a joint Saxon and Russian army at the battle of Dunamunde (9 July 1701). In 1702, Charles still concentrated on Poland, capturing Warsaw in May, before seeking out battle against Augustus. On 2 July 1702, he routed a larger Polish-Saxon army at the battle of Kliszow, before siezing Cracow, and proceeding to take control of Poland, defeating another Polish and Saxon army at the battle of Pultusk (13 April 1703). This left Peter the Great free to invade Ingria, where he defeated a Swedish army at the battle of Errestfer (7 January 1702), then at the battle of Hummselsdorf (18 July 1702), gaining control of the Neva Valley. The following year, Peter reached the mouth of the Neva, and on 16 May 1703 founded St. Petersburg, regaining direct access to the Baltic for Russia. The same pattern continued in 1704. Charles concentrated on Poland, where Stanislas Leszczynski, his candidate for the throne, fought Augustus, while Peter concentrated on securing the area around St. Petersburg. Charles remained in Poland through 1705, before chasing the Russian's out of Lithuania in early 1706. At the same time, another attempt by Augustus to regain Poland was stopped at the battle of Franstadt (3 February 1706). In August-September 1706, Charles finally defeated Augustus by invading Saxony, where after he siezed Leipzig, Augustus sued for peace, and by the treaty of Altranstadt (24 September 1706) abdicated the throne of Poland. At this point, Peter also sued for peace. If Charles had taken this change, he would have achieved a stunning victory against overwhelming odds, but at this point the lust for conquest overcame his judgement, and he refused Peter. After a brief dispute with the Empire, Chares prepared for his invasion of Russia. Like so many invaders, Charles was to come to grief in Russia. On 1 January 1708, Charles crossed the frozen Vistula with his army of 45,000 men, his largest ever army, and made good progress, before waiting out the spring thaw near Minsk (March-June). When he started moving, Charles had some initial successes. On 4 July 1708 he defeated Russian forces guarding the river Bibitch at the battle of Holowczyn, and reached the Dnieper in early July. At this point, Peter initiated a scorched earth policy, slowly retreating before the Swedes, destroying all food and crops, and refusing battle, leaving the Swedish army desperately short of supplies. Charles's response was to decide to march into the Ukraine, where he expected to join up with a Cossack revolt, while at the same time ordering a supply column from Sweden to join him there. This was a dreadful error. Peter had learnt of the planned Cossack revolt, and in Octomebr 1708 managed to preempt it, while on 9-10 October 1708, the Swedish supply column of 11,000 men was defeated by a larger Russian army. Only 6,000 troops from the column reached Charles, after having to destroy the desperatly needed supplies. This left Charles stranded in Russia for the winter of 1708-9, one of the coldest ever in Europe. The Russians harrassed the Swedes all winter, and by the spring Charles had lost over half of his original army, although managing to maintain any fighting force was an impressive achievement. When campaigning began in 1709, Charles engaged in the siege of Poltave. Peter the Great gathered an army of 80,000 men, and at the battle of Poltava (28 June 1709), crushed the Swedish army, taking 18,794 prisoners. Charles himself escaped to Turkish Moldavia, and remained in Turkey until 1714. In the meantime, Russian and her allies were free to dismember the Swedish empire. In August-December 1709 Peter invaded Poland, reinstating Augustus, and also occupied the Baltic coast. The Danes retook Schleswig, along with Bremen and Verden, also Swedish, while another Danish army occupied Skane in southern Sweden. Another Danish, Polish and Saxon army invaded Swedish Pomerania (now the Polish coast), but were repulsed. The Danes were repulsed from Sweden early in 1710, and the Swedes concentrated on defending their German possessions. The war took another twist in October 1710, when Charles XII, still in Turkish Moldavia, pursuaded the Turks to declare war on Russian, and a 200,000 strong Turkish amry was sent to the border. Peter responded by invading Moldavia with 60,000 men (March-July 1711), where he was promptly outmaneuvered by the Turks, who pinned him against the Pruth River. However, at this point the Turks failed to press their advantage, instead negotiating a peace with Peter (Treaty of Pruth, 21 July 1711), which concentrated on Turkish issues. Charles was furious at the easy terms, and refused to leave Turkey for another four years, eventually having to escape from virtual house arrest, and crossing Europe with a single servant, he finally returned to Swedish territory on 11 November 1714. In the meantime, the war had continued, with little effect despite repeated Swedish defeats, although Russian managed to gain naval dominance in the Baltic. The return of Charles put new life into the Swedish war effort, although once again he refused several chances to make a good peace. After detering an attempt to invade Sweden (1716), Charles decided to attack Norway, then Danish (1717-1718). It was on this campaign that Charles met his death, shot through the head during the siege of Fredriksten (11 December 1718). 1719 and 1720 saw the Russians use their new control of the Baltic to launch repeated raids against mainland Sweden, and eventually the Swedes sued for peace. Sweden managed to negotiate good terms with Denmark, Poland and Saxony, with a return to the pre-war state, although some of Swedish Pomerania was lost to Prussia. However, peace with Russia was not made until the Treaty of Nystad (30 August 1721), which was not so generous. Russia kept most of the Baltic coast, but returned Finland to Sweden, and paid an indemnity. The war left the balance of power in the Baltic permanently changed, with Russia newly emerged as a major European power, and Sweden relegated from that status.

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The Peninsular War (1807-14). What Napoleon planned to be a minor campaign resulted in one of the key areas of conflict in the Napoleonic Wars. After a few unsuccessful attempts to bring the war to Napoleon on mainland Europe, the Peninsular was to prove the forging ground for the British Army and after a mixed start, the one area in which the allies represented by Britain could win victories against Imperial France. For the French it became the 'Spanish ulcer' as Napoleon called it, draining resources both in troops and money but also in Napoleons time, for at the end of the day no matter how great a general Napoleon was he could not be everywhere at once. The War originated from Napoleons wish to extend the Continental system throughout Europe. As apart from smuggling which was rife , Portugal remained the only country that would still openly accept British imports. To do this Napoleon planned to invade Portugal by first taking control of Spain and therefore controlling the whole of the Iberian Peninsular. In November 1807 General Junot led a French Army through Spain and into Portugal occupying Lisbon on 1st December 1807.The Portuguese Royal family fled to Brazil at that time a Portuguese colony and appealed to Britain for help. Napoleon then as he was to do often in the future over played his hand, sending Marshal Murat into Spain with a large French army in March 1808. Following Napoleons wishes the weak Spanish King Charles IV and his son were deposed and Napoleons brother Joseph was 'elected' to the Spanish throne. By May many insurrections hand broken out against French Rule. These were Guerrilla or small wars and although this form of warfare has existed for thousands of years it is from this period that we get the term Guerrilla warfare. With the regular Spanish forces largely ineffective this became the only form of warfare left to the Spanish people, it was characterized by acts of brutality by both sides, but was to create the conditions for future British victories and finally lead to the liberation of Spain many years later. In June/August 1808 the Spanish city of Saragossa heldout against French attempts to recapture it from a local uprising, this was followed quickly by the surrender of Gen Dupoint's French army at Baylen. For the time being Junot was cut off in Portugal and to make matters worse for the French a British expeditionary force under the temporary command of Sir Arthur Wellesley (later to become the Duke of Wellington) landed in Portugal on 1st August 1808. Wellesley quickly gained two victories first at Rolica 17 August 1808 and then at Vimerio 21st August 1808, but these gains were reversed when his superiors arrived the inept Hew Dalrymple and Harry Burrard. Still believing in war as the sport of nobility these two foolishly signed the Convention of Cintra which by allowing Junots army home in British ships caused an outrage back home. All three British Generals were recalled home but only Wellesley was cleared. While this was taking place Sir John Moore had taken command of the British Army in Portugal and started working much more closely with the Spanish. The Spanish were not yet ready to move from insurgency to conventional war and when Moore advanced into Spain he found himself facing the French alone. To make matters worse Napoleon himself lead the French Armies. Napoleon quickly retook Madrid and forced the British into a terrible retreat through the Spanish mountains. Convinced the War in the Peninsula was over Napoleon left Marshall Soult to finish Moore off and returned to France as 1809 began to prepare for war against Austria. Moore was far from finished and he made a stand at Corunna defeating Soult on 16th January although Moore died during the battle the remains of the British Army were able to escape by sea. Lisbon was still free from French control and became the base of British operations when Wellesley returned, now with Portuguese allies under the command of William Beresford. Soult crossed into Portugal in the spring of 1809 but was defeated again by Wellesley at Oporto on 12th May. Wellesley now advanced into Spain with Spanish allies who proved unreliable as when Marshal Victor and Joseph Bonaparte attacked at Talavera 28th July 1809 they took no active part in the battle at all. Despite this Wellesley defeated the French but determined not to make Moores mistake retreated back into Portugal until he could be sure of his Spanish allies and was better prepared. For Talavera Wellesley became known as Wellington as his reward but would not become a Duke until 1814. the remains of the Spanish army were forced back to defend Cadiz as the free capital of Spain while Wellington prepared defences in Portugal for the expected French invasion, these became known as the Lines of Torres Vedras. By early 1810 two French Armies were on the border, the Army of Portugal under Marshall Andre Massena and the Army of Andalusia under Marshall Soult, the personal dislike both men had for each other was to prevent any coordinated action. In July 1810 Massena advanced and was defeated by Wellington at Buscao on 27th September, Wellington refused to be draw out from his defences by this victory and Massena's forces spent a long harsh winter starving outside the British and Portuguese lines. Despite unsuccessful French attempts to retake Cadiz by 1811 the situation in the Peninsular had changed very little. Wellington defeated Massena again at Fuentes de Onoro in May 1811 and the Allied army under Beresford attacked the boarder fortress of Badajoz with little success and much butchery. Elsewhere Spanish regulars and irregulars suffered set backs at the hands of the French including their defeat at Valencia on 9th January 1812, proving once again that insurgents have little chance of rebelling invaders until they are able to fight and win a conventional war. In January of 1812 Wellington decided that it was the right time to go on the offensive. First he took the two border forts which were the gateway to Spain, Ciudad Rodrigo (19th Jan) and Badajoz (19th April) lacking any real siege train or the time to reduce the fortresses through starvation these were taken by bloody assaults. Wellington continued to make his name defeating Massena's replacement Marshall Marmont at Salamanca on 22 July. Madrid was briefly liberated but the lack of siege train this time made taking Burgos impossible and Wellington retreated back to Portugal rather than risk being cut off by superior French forces. Although forced back into Portugal the Peninsular war had turned in favour of the British. Wellington had made his reputation smashing all the French Marshals and armies sent against him and just as importantly Napoleon had drained Spain of the best of the French forces for the invasion of Russia. Napoleon had expected to return to Spain after the Russia had been dealt with and crush the British forces but of course few of his troops returned from the lethal 1812 campaign. In 1813 Wellington lead a much more confident Allied Army into Spain once more, once again facing Joseph Bonaparte and once again smashing the French army this time at the battle of Vittoria on 21st June 1813. Marshal Suchet tried to hold the mountain passes but after several hard fought engagements the Wellingtons army entered France. Wellingtons army drove northwards defeating Soult at Orthez in February 1814 and capturing Bordeaux. The last battle of the Peninsular war was fought at Toulose on 10th April 1814 were Soult was once again defeated. Sadly this was a pointless battle and wasted many lives needlessly as Napoleon had abdicated on 6th April 1814 but news had yet to reach the combatants in the south. The Peninsular war proved a fatal drain to Napoleons resources both in his time and in men and materials. It also helped forge a British army capable of beating the French and proved British commitment to the war against Napoleon to the European Allies throughout this turbulent period. Most importantly it brought to the fore one of the Great Generals of the period, the duke of Wellington, although it is important to not that Wellington and Napoleon never fought against each other during this campaign - that would have to wait until the Hundred Days campaign and Napoleons last desperate gamble.

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Welsh War of Edward I, 1277-1282. Previous kings of England had made repeated attempts to invade the Welsh stronghold of Snowdonia. However, the feudal army was not suited to campaigning in mountainous country, where the Welsh simply disappeared into the high mountains, and after the feudal army disbanded at the end of its forty day period of service, the Welsh would come back down from the mountains and reoccupy their lands. Edward I responded to this in three ways. First, he altered the nature of his army. Many nobles appeared with a fraction of their full quota, and stayed on after the forty days in return for a wage, while he also paid for a large number of infantry, amongst whom there were a large number of south Welsh troops. Second, Edward embarged on a largescale road building program throughout Snowdonia, clearing forests to avoid ambush and allowing his troops much easier access to the Welsh heartland. Thirdly, he embarked on a huge program of castle building, by far the biggest undertaken by any English king - indeed, Wales was truly pacified before all of the castles were completed,. and were not tested until Glendowers revolt, over a century later. Trouble started soon after Edward I returned from crusade to assume his throne. As was tradition, he summoned Llewellyn-ap-Graffyd, prince of Gwynedd, to do homage to him as his superior. However, Llewellyn regarded himself as an equal of Edward, as ruler of his own Principality, and refused to appear. Edward responded by raising one of the largest armies any English king had then created, with 1,000 Knights, and up to 15,000 footsoldiers, raised from the areas bordering Wales, properly supported and capable of staying in the field until the war was won. The campaign started with two thrusts into south and mid Wales by the marcher lords, which stripped much of Llewellyns support from him. In July 1277, Edward and the main army left Worcester to march towards the North Welsh coast. The army moved along the coast from Chester, to Flint (26 July 1277), then Rhuddlan, and then to the mouth of the River Conway (29 July 1277), cutting a wide road along the coast, and beginning the construction of Edwards great castles. At the same time, a fleet raised from the Cinque Ports isolated Anglesey, from where the Welsh gained most of their grain. Once Edward reached Conway, a detachment from his army captured Anglesey, and the grain supplies, leaving Llewellyn without food and surrounded, forcing his surrender. On 9 November 1277, the Treaty of Conway marked his defeat. He agreed to withdraw into Gwynedd, abandoning earlier conquests, while also abandoning his claims to authority in the Welsh Marches, and acknowledging Edward as his superior. Five years later, the war flared up again. David ap Gruffyd, Llewellyn's brother, who had allied with Edward, suddenly abandoned his alliance, and launched an attack on the English, forcing Llewellyn to join him. At first, the Welsh achieved great success, besieging Flint and Rhuddlan, and reaching as far as Chester and the Bristol Channel. Edward used the same approach as in 1277, although this time he also had to reconquer large areas of South Wales as well as Gwynedd. From July 1282, events largely mirrored those of 1277. Edward fought his was along the north Welsh coast, while the fleet captured Anglesey. Another army advanced through the vale of Clwyd. Threatened by both armys, David withdrew, forcing Llewellyn to abandon his conquests in south Wales and return to Gwynedd. At this point, Edward was poised to launch a three pronged attack on Gwynedd, while Llewellyn was ready for a final defense of his homeland, when Luke de Tany, in charge of the army on Anglesey, tried to cross the Menai Strait to the mainland unsupported, and waiting Welsh forces annihilated his force, forcing Edward to cancel his attack and plan for a long winter campaign. At this point, luck played its part. On 11 December, Llewellyn was caught and killed by a marcher force under John Giffard at the battle of Orewen Bridge. After Llewellyns death, Welsh resistence was effectively over. This time, Edward ended the independence of the Princes of Gwynedd, which became the core of the lands of the English Princes of Wales.

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War of the First Coalition (1793-97) This was part of the struggle which followed the French revolutionary wars, with the great dynastic powers of Europe trying to reverse the outcome of the revolution and restore the French monarchy. The forces of the first Coalition were Austria, Prussia, Great Britain, Spain, Sardinia and the Netherlands. The French Directory gave the young Napoleon Bonaparte the job of conducting military operations against the Austrian forces in Northern Italy (1796-97). After success there he was given command of an expedition to Egypt (1798-99) defeating the Mamelukes at the Battle of the Pyramids 21st July 1798. The aim was to take Egypt as a base for future operations against the British in India but initial success was wasted when Napoleon was called back due to events in France. These campaigns are sometimes regarded as the opening phase of the Napoleonic Wars as although Bonaparte was not yet the leader of France he was in command of large numbers of forces and was showing the early signs of what he would later accomplish. The War of the 1st Coalition starts with the French Declaration of War to Austria and Prussia on 20th of april 1792 and ends with the Peace of Campo formio on 17th of october 1797. Late in 1792 the Convention issued a decree offering assistance to all peoples wishing to recover their liberty. This decree, the execution of Louis XVI (Jan., 1793), and the opening of the Scheldt estuary (contrary to the Peace of Westphalia) provoked Great Britain, Holland, and Spain to join Austria and Prussia in the First Coalition against France. Sardinia had already declared war after France had occupied Savoy and Nice (Sept., 1792). On Feb. 1, 1793, France declared war on Britain and Holland, and on Mar. 7, on Spain. Things rapidly turned against France. Dumouriez, defeated at Neerwinden (Mar. 18) by the Austrians, deserted to the enemy; revolt broke out in the VendEe; and Custine lost Mainz to the Prussians (July 23). By the end of 1793 the allies had been driven from France. In 1794 the new French commanders, Jourdan and Pichegru, took the offensive. Jourdan, after defeating the Austrians at Fleurus (June 26, 1794), moved along the Rhine as far as Mannheim; Pichegru seized the Low Countries. On May 16, 1795, Holland, transformed into the Batavian Republic, made peace. Prussia on Apr. 5, 1795, signed a separate peace (the first Treaty of Basel), ceding the left bank of the Rhine to France; Spain made peace on July 22 (second Treaty of Basel). Warfare against Austria and Sardinia continued under the newly established Directory. France gradually evolved a plan calling for a three-pronged attack: Jourdan was to advance southeastward from the Low Countries; Jean Victor Moreau was to strike at S Germany; and Napoleon Bonaparte was to conquer Piedmont and Lombardy, cross the Austrian Alps, and join with Moreau and Jourdan. During 1795 the French defeated the allies on all fronts, but in 1796 the new Austrian commander, Archduke Charles, took the offensive, defeating first Jourdan, then Moreau, both of whom had retreated to the Rhine by Sept., 1796. On the Italian front, where an ill-supplied French army had been engaged in desultory and defensive operations until Bonaparte's arrival in 1796, one victory followed another (for details of the Italian campaign, see Napoleon I). Sardinia submitted in May, 1796, and in Apr., 1797, the preliminary peace of Leoben with Austria was signed by Bonaparte, just as Moreau had resumed his offensive in Germany. The armistice was confirmed by the Treaty of Campo Formio (Oct., 1797). Britain, however, remained in the war, retaining naval superiority under such able commanders as Samuel Hood, Richard Howe, John Jervis, and Horatio Nelson. Bonaparte's plan to attack the British Empire by way of Egypt was doomed by Nelson's naval triumph at Aboukir in Aug., 1798.
The 1st Coalition War has the following campaigns.
• Campaign in Italy of 1796 & 1797 (Napoleon's 1st Italian Campaign): 26th of march 1796 until 17th of october 1797 (Peace of Campo formio).
• Campaign in Holland.
Battle of the Pyramids 21st July 1798 (Egypt) Battle that followed soon after the War of the First Coalition. After landing and capturing Alexandria in early July Napoleon advanced towards Cairo and within sight of the Pyramids with the Egyptian capital only four miles away he fought his first major battle against the Mamelukes. The battle was a clash between a modern European Army and a medieval Middle Eastern Army. although heavily outnumbered Napoleon realised that the only Egyptian troops of any worth on the battlefield were their cavalry so he arranged his forces in large divisional 'Squares' with the front and rear made up of a demi brigade each (six ranks deep) and the third Demi Brigade of the division making up the two sides of the square. Cavalry and baggage hid within these squares. The French Squares repelled the Mameluke horsemen with artillery fire supporting, French infantry then drove the disorganized Egyptian infantry (Fellahin) away killing several thousand after about an hours fighting. The French losses amounted to about 300 while estimated Egyptian losses were around 4,000-6,000. Seeing the defeat of the Mameluke horse by the French a larger Mameluke army waiting in Cairo dispersed into the desert leaving the capital open to Napoleon . Napoleon made his head quarters in what is now the Helwan-Shepard Hotel.
War of the First Coalition1799-1803. Meanwhile, France again aroused the anger of the European powers by creating the Cisalpine Republic and the Roman Republic and by invading Switzerland, which was transformed into the Helvetic Republic. Under the leadership of Czar Paul I a Second Coalition was formed by Russia, Austria, Britain, Turkey, Portugal, and Naples. France defeated
Naples and transformed it into the Parthenopean Republic (Jan., 1799), but in N Italy the Austrians and the Russians drove out the French, and in Aug., 1799, General Suvorov crossed the Alps into Switzerland, where Archduke Charles had already won (June 4–7) a victory at ZUrich over MassEna. However, disunity between the Austrians and the Russians resulted in disastrous defeats in Switzerland, and Suvorov, after a masterly retreat through the Alps, returned to Russia (Sept.–Oct., 1799). At this juncture Bonaparte returned from Egypt and by the coup of 18 Brumaire became First Consul (Nov., 1799). The coalition was weakened by Russia's withdrawal, and Napoleon feverishly prepared a campaign to recoup French losses. The campaign of 1800 was decisive. In Italy, Napoleon, after crossing the St. Bernard Pass, crushed the Austrians at Marengo (June 14); in Germany, Moreau crossed the Rhine and demolished allied opposition at Hohenlinden (Dec. 3, 1800). With the Peace of LunEville : a more severe version of the Treaty of Campo Formio : Austria was forced out of the war (Feb. 9, 1801). Great Britain, however, continued victorious, taking Malta (Sept., 1800) and compelling the French to surrender in Egypt (Aug., 1801). When Denmark, encouraged by France, defied British supremacy of the seas, Lord Nelson destroyed the Danish fleet in the battle of Copenhagen (Apr. 2, 1801). Nevertheless, the British were war-weary and, after Pitt's retirement, consented to the Treaty of Amiens (Mar. 27, 1802), by which all conquests were restored to France. But the absence of a commercial agreement and Britain's refusal to evacuate Malta was to lead to the resumption of warfare in 1803. Peace had already been made with Naples (Mar., 1801) and with Portugal (Sept., 1801), and in Oct., 1802, France signed a treaty restoring Egypt to the Ottoman Empire.

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Creek War, 1813-14, (U.S.A.) War between the Creek Indians and the U.S.A. The Creek were encouraged by the British as part of the War of 1812. Fighting started at Fort Mims (30 August 1813), where the Creek surprised the militia garrison, and killed more than half of the 500 militia and refugees present in the fort. The American response was led by Andrew Jackson, then a major general of militia, who inflicted defeats on the Creek at Tallasahatchee (3 November) and Talladega (9 November), although his force was then disbanded, allowing the Creek to regroup and threaten once again. In February 1815 Jackson again took to the field, with a new force of volunters, strengthened by a small contingent of regular troops, and inflicted a crushing defeat on the Creek at Horseshoe Bend (27 March 1814). The Creek were forced to sign the Treaty of Fort Jackson (9 August 1814), surrendering most of their tribal lands, while Jackson was promoted to major general in the regular army. The Creek Indians, who had been allies of the British during the War of 1812, were angered by white encroachment on their hunting grounds in Georgia and Alabama. In 1813, some Creeks under Chief Red Eagle (William Watherford) (1780?-1824) attacked and burned Fort Mims on the lower Alabama River, killing about 500 whites [the Fort Mims Massacre]. Afterward, US militiamen, led by General Andrew Jackson (1767-1845), invaded Creek territory in central Alabama and destroyed two Indian villages -- Talladega and Tallasahatchee -- in the fall of1813. Jackson pursued the Creek, and on March 27, 1814, his 3,000-man army attacked and defeated them at that Battle of Horseshoe Bend on the Tallapoosa River in eastern Albabama. More than 800 Creek warriors were killed, and the power of the Creek nation was completely broken. At the Treaty of Fort Jackson on August 9, 1814, the Creek were compelled to cede 23 million acres (half of Alabama and part of southern Georgia) to the whites.
Battle of Horseshoe Bend, 7 March 1814 (U.S.A.) Battle that marked the defeat of the Creek Indians in the Creek War. Andrew Jackson, at this point a commander of Militia, had raised a force of 2,000 men, with a small number of regular troops to complement the volunteers, while the Creek had 900 men. Jackson's superior force wiped out the Indian force on the Tallapoosa River, losing only 201 men to the Creek's 700, ending their threat.

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