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Updated: June 13, 2004


The greatest battles fought by soldiers and warriors who have become infamous and immortal as a result of the great victories they achieved; their bravery, perseverance, determination, cunning, tactics, sacrifices and fortitude have written the stories of their battles and their names on the sand and winds of time. History is kind and forgiving to the victor, but forgetful and blind to those defeated, for it is the victor who is seen as right and just and who will write history to suit their own cause. They have used the power of force of their armies to invade, conquer and control; to eliminate, destroy enemies or force their will upon them, be they individuals or nations; to protect their countries against agressors; and to change the course of history by bestowing power of control upon others or eliminating those that don't agree with them.

The Netherlands and England were both great maritime nations and it was inevitable that a conflict would arise between then. There were three Anglo-Dutch Wars. The first from 1652 to 1654, the second from 1664 to 1667 and the third from 1672-1674. It was the end of the second war that gave the British New Amsterdam (which became, of course, New York). The Third Anglo-Dutch War was part of the Franco-Dutch War (1672-1674), waged by Louis XIV of France who sought control of the Spanish Netherlands. After incidents involving the English capture of Dutch trading posts and colonies in West Africa and North America - subsequently recaptured by the Dutch - the English declared war on the Netherlands on March 4, 1665. After the First Anglo-Dutch War the Dutch were better prepared, having extended their navy by ordering sixty new warships. The outbreak of war was ominously followed by the Great Plague and the Great Fire of London. These events in such close succession virtually brought Britain to its knees.

The First Anglo Dutch War (1652-1654) was precipitated by Oliver Cromwell. Cromwell demanded tribute for herring caught within 30 miles of England (a practice begun by the Stuarts), required all ships in the Channel to salute English warships and passed the Navigation Act that required all goods imported to England be carried in English ships or ships of the country where the goods originated. The Navigation Act and the salute particularly angered the Dutch. In 1652 Admiral Martin Tromp, then commander of the Dutch fleet ordered forty ships not to salue the English. In response Robert Blake (whom some regard as the greatest British admiral), opened fire. Later that year Blake attacked a Dutch herring fleet and Tromp's fleet was unable to intervene because of a storm. Because of Tromp's failure (though it was no fault of his own) he was temporarily replaced by de Witt. De Witt was quickly defeated by Blake, and Tromp was again placed in command. Despite Blake's protest the British Council of State sent English ships away from the Channel, and in November Tromp, with twice as many ships as Blake, won a victory off the Thames. At the end of 1652, neither side had gained a clear advantage. In 1653 the Dutch States-General ordered Tromp's forces split in order to both defend their merchant fleet and attack the British. While escorting a merchant fleet through the Channel Tromp was attacked, beginning the Three Day's Battle (aka The Battle of Portland). Through brilliant maneuvering Tromp was able to escape with most of his fleet, but he lost a dozen warships and 50 merchant ships. Blake was wounded in the battle. While recouperating from his wounds Blake drew up Fighting Instructions, a milestone in naval tactics. In June 1653 the fleets met at the Battle of the Gabbard, and George Monk, General in charge of the English fleet, instituted the Instructions. The result was a decisive victory for the English. The two fleets met again at the Battle of Scheveningen where Tromp's fleet was "overwhelmed by English firepower and outclassed by English tactics." (Potter, 50) Tromp was killed in the battle. By April 1654 the English had captured more than 1000 merchant ships and came to terms with Cromwell.

The Second Anglo Dutch War (1664-1667) resulted from two incidents: the first in 1663 when an English squadron captured two Dutch posts in West Africa (because the Dutch were underselling the English in the slave trade), and the second incident, the taking of New Amsterdam in 1664. The victories in West Africa and New Amsterdam were followed in 1665 by another victory at Lowestoft by James, Duke of York (the future James II). However, the Dutch Admiral de Ruyter, Tromp's protege and one of the greatest seamen of his time (who had not been at Lowestoft), captured a merchant fleet and engaged the British in the Four Days Battle. The battle ended only because of the exhaustion of supplies and both sides claimed victory. The English lost 5,000 men and 20 ships, the Dutch suffered less than half the English casualties and lost seven ships - however, de Ruyter had withdrawn first. Several English victories followed, including the sack of Terschelling. His financial position strained by the war and further weakend by the plague in 1665 and the London fire of 1666, Charles cut back naval operations. Therefore there was little opposition when the Dutch retaliated in 1667 by attacking Medway, wreaking havoc on the English fleet. De Ruyter controlled the southern coast of England until the Treaty of Breda was signed on July 31, 1667. Captain Henry Morgan, of pirate fame, was also a figure in the Second Anglo-Dutch War. Morgan commanded the British buccaneers in the Caribbean. During the war Morgan captured Camagey, Cuba, and sacked Portobelo on the Isthmus of Panama. In 1671 Morgan, with 36 ships and nearly 2,000 buccaneers, defeated a large Spanish force to take the City of Panama. If you look at the chronology you'll note this was done, in fact, after the Second Dutch War was over. Morgan was sent in chains to England. However, because of increasing tension with the Netherlands and the outbreak of the Third Dutch War, Morgan was released, knighted and made governor of Jamaica.

Third Anglo Dutch War (1672-1674) ironically was waged against the Dutch William of Orange - later King of England. The lord high admiral of England in the Second and Third Dutch wars was none other than James II, brother (Duke of York during the Wars) and eventual successor to Charles II. Although his reputation as King is poor, James was an effective administrator as high admiral. It was his interest that led to the taking of New Amsterdam in 1664 (hence its renaming in his honor). With mutual interest in war with the Netherlands, the French and English signed the Treaty of Dover in 1670. In 1672 the British Navy supported the French invasion of the Dutch Republic. Although the French took several provinces, the Dutch opened the dikes around Amsterdam creating a "water Line," behind which William III of Orange rallied his troops. There were four main battles of the Third Anglo-Dutch War. In all four de Ruyter proved his skills as a master seaman, saving his country from invasion and breaking attempts at blockade. The first battle was the Battle of Sole Bay. (Edward Montagu, 1st Earl of Sandwich was killed during the Battle.) Two other battles were inconclusive, but in August 1673 at the Battle of the Texel, De Ruyter defeated Prince Rupert. (De Ruyter also defeated the French at Ostend (1672) and Kijkduin (1673). In 1673 the Spanish allied with the Netherlands and by the end of the year the French were out of the Netherlands. In 1674 the British signed the Treaty of Westminster with the Dutch. As an afterward, James, Duke of York, became James II of England in 1685. In 1688 he was forced to abdicate and William of Orange, the husband of Mary (who was James II's daughter by his first wife), became King. William ruled both the Britain and the Netherlands until his death in 1702. William and Mary died without issue. John William Friso, a distant relative of William of Orange, succeeded William in the Netherlands, and Mary's sister Anne became Queen of England.

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The War of Austrian Succession came about as a result of the death of the Emperor Charles VI of Austria on 20th October 1740. By the famous Pragmatic Sanction of 1713 Charles changed the order of succession so that his daughter, Maria Theresa would take precedent over other claimants to the Hapsburg throne. The unstable position of Austria gave the Prussian King, Frederick the Great a chance to overrun the province of Silesia, and thereafter in May 1741, despite strong opposition from the Prime Minister of the day, Walpole, King George II of England, who had much sympathy for the plight of Austria, travelled to Hanover where he formed an army, to become known as the Pragmatic Army, of British, Dutch, Hanoverian, Danes, Hessians and Austrians which forced Frederick to redeploy some of his forces against any threats from Hanover and Saxony. The years 1741-1742 were uneventful for the British forces under King George. However on the 27th June 1743 the battle of Dettingen was fought in which the king took command in person, and it was the last time that an English monarch led an army in battle. The battle itself was of no great strategic importance, but it did once again prove the steadfastness of the British infantry. Things became quieter again on the British front during 1744, and George II returned to England leaving the British contingent under the command of his third son, the Duke of Cumberland. A professional soldier, Cumberland was made Commander-in-Chief of all the Allied forces in 1745. By the spring of 1745 the French army under Marshal Maurice de Saxe had hoodwinked the Allies by a well-directed feint towards the town of Mons. While this was in progress and diverting the attention of Cumberland the French suddenly appeared before the fortress of Tournai and surrounded the garrison. Not wishing to leave the door to western Flanders in French hands Cumberland ordered his army to march to its relief. The delay entailed in collecting the Allied forces, together with the uncertainty of the threat towards Mons had given Marshal de Saxe time to prepare a favourable position on which to receive the Pragmatic Army, and given the fact that he already had all his engineers from the siege of Tournai on site to oversee the construction of his battlefield fortifications, it is small wonder that he himself thought his position almost impregnable. The French right wing was anchored firmly on the river Scheldt at the fortified village of Antoing.Here the houses had been turned into miniature fortresses, the streets were barricaded and slit trenches were dug around the outskirts of the village to enable an even greater volume of fire to be delivered by the defenders. On the east bank of the Scheldt a strong battery of artillery was installed so as to enfilade any advance on Antoing from the south. From Antoing the French line extended to the west for just over a mile until it reached another fortified village, Fontenoy. Along this line de Saxe had constructed three redoubts each about 400 meters apart. These were not just constructed as a kind of breakwater upon which the enemy columns would have to loose formation in order to attack and then reform after passing between them, but also to facilitate counterattacks, allowing the French cavalry to flow through in pursuit of a beaten foe. The village of Fontenoy, like Antoing was turned into a strongpoint with cannon placed to cover every approach. From here the French line turned at right angles to the north for approximately 1000 meters following the course of a sunken road across a plateau leading to the Bois de Bary (Wood of Barry). Behind the sunken road de Saxe placed two lines of infantry, supported by two lines of cavalry of around 60 squadrons.
On the French left, in and around the Bois de Bary, de Saxe lavished still more of his considerable talents in field fortification. The wood was lined with infantry and many of the trees had been felled to form abattis. Two strong redoubts were constructed at the eastern side of the wood to dispute any turning movement, the most famous of these being known as the Redoubt D’Eu which had been built at the south-eastern tip of the Bois de Bary so as to enfilade any advance made by the Allies against the French centre. In support of this position was a reserve of picked infantry and cavalry regiments, including the Irish Brigade, the “Wild Geese”. In all the French army numbered 93 battalions,146 squadrons and 80 cannon, some 70,000 troops, of which 27 battalions and 17 squadrons were left to cover Tournai. Cumberland reconnoitred the French position on 10th May and decided to pin down the French right wing by attacking with the Austrian and Dutch contingents between Antoing and Fontenoy. While these attacks were being made the British and Hanoverians would advance between Fontenoy and the Bois de Bary across what appeared to be open ground. The Pragmatic Army was comprised of 56 battalions of infantry and 87 squadrons of cavalry supported by 80 cannon, in all around 53,000 men. Cumberland’s plans proved impractical as they were based on very incomplete and hastily gathered information. He was not fully aware of the strength of the garrisons of Fontenoy and Antoing, and even less appreciative of the redoubts on the French left. At 6am on the mourning of May 11th the Pragmatic Army began to deploy from the west through the villages of Vezon and Burgeon, under a heavy fire, and it was only now that Cumberland became aware of just how strong the French position really was. The attacks against Antoing and Fontenoy were beaten back by a terrible fire of cannon and musketry. On the Allied right confusion and muddled orders and counter orders caused an attack by British and Hanoverian troops on the Redoubt D’Eu to be badly handled by General Ingoldsby. His troops came under massive canister and musket fire at close range forcing them to retire with heavy losses. While the Allied attacks on the French left and right were being driven back the British cavalry had deployed across the plain in front of Vezon. Here it was exposed to a withering fire from the French artillery but remained motionless while Cumberland and General Ligonier commanding the main body of the British infantry formed his regiments for an attack through a shallow valley and up the gentle slope of the plateau, across which ran the sunken road lined by 5000 French infantry. At about 10.30am the British infantry, followed by the Hanoverians moved through the intervals of the cavalry lines, dressed ranks and began to advance to the steady beat of the drum. With their standards slapping in the breeze they began to climb the plateau. At every step men were killed or wounded, but the lines continued to advance. The fire from Fontenoy and the Redoubt D’Eu caused the column to compress in on itself until it became a compact mass 15,000 strong. When they were within 50 meters of the French front line the British infantry raised their muskets and fired as one man, shattering the well-ordered ranks of the French. Without pausing the British pressed on across the sunken road and into the heart of the French position. Here they were assailed by squadron after squadron of the finest cavalry of France, including the Maison du Roi, while the Irish regiment of Dillon attempted to come in on the British right flank, only to be beaten back by the steady roll of controlled musket fire. Away on the left the Dutch had once again been forced back with heavy losses while attacking Antoing and Fontenoy, and this in turn enabled the French commander to divert still more fire upon the “Infernal Column”. Nevertheless the British and Hanoverians held their ground for almost four hours finally falling back when five more Irish regiments and 7 battalions of Swiss and French Guards assailed them. The retreat was carried out in good order with the British turning about to deliver punishing volleys into the ranks of their pursuers. Cumberland has taken much of the blame, and rightly so, for the way in which he handled the battle; however the attack against the French centre could have been decisive. As Frederick the Great later remarked,’ A quarter- wheel to the left or the right would have brought victory’. Even Marshal de Saxe himself declared that,’ I did not think any general would be bold enough to venture such an attack’. As it was the Pragmatic Army lost almost 10,000 men, while the French suffered between 6,000-7,000 casualties.

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Barons' War in English history, war of 1263–67 between King Henry III and his barons. In 1261, Henry III renounced the Provisions of Oxford (1258) and the Provisions of Westminster (1259), which had vested considerable power in a council of barons, and reasserted his right to appoint councilors. The barons led by Simon de Montfort, earl of Leicester, finally resorted to arms in 1263 and forced the king to reaffirm his adherence to the Provisions. In 1264 a decision in favor of the crown by Louis IX of France as arbitrator led to a renewal of war, but Montfort defeated Henry's forces in the battle of Lewes, and the king once again submitted to government by council. Early in 1265, Montfort summoned his famous representative Parliament to strengthen his position, which was threatened by the possibility of an invasion by Henry's adherents abroad. The invasion did not take place, but an uprising against Montfort of the Welsh “Marchers” (Englishmen along the Welsh border) led to his defeat by the king's son (later Edward I) at Evesham. Montfort was killed in the battle, but some baronial resistance continued until 1267. The barons had failed to establish their own control over the crown, but they had helped prepare the way for the constitutional developments of the reign of Edward I. Barons' War covers the two major battles of Simon de Montefort - Lewes and Evesham., providing a new take on a rarely covered period of English history. Interestingly, these battles take place in a unique period of English military history when the long bow had not gained its predominance on the English battlefield and cavalry was still the most lethal weapon in the medieval English arsenal. These two battles are the bookends of Simon's brief period as the power broker of England. Lewes takes place in 1264 and pits Simon with the support from many of the prominent barons against Henry III and his royalist faction. His victory and imprisonment of Henry made him king in all but name The second battle, Evesham, takes place one year later and finds Simon in a weakened condition facing the much more dangerous Prince Edward and the treachery of his own barons. It would be Simon's last battle.
Barons War, First, (1215-1217) A civil war caused by the failure of King John to honour the terms of the Magna Carta. The Barons offered the throne to Louis, son of Philip II Augustus of France. King John campaigned successfully in the Midlands and the North, but when Louis landed in Kent in May 1216 John lost control of the south east. King John died in October 1216, and with his death the rebels lost much of their support, as the supporters of the nine year old Henry III gained ground. The barons were defeated at Lincoln, and
the French supply ships captured, forcing Louis to accept the treaty of Kingston-upon-Thames (12 September 1217), in which the rebels were granted an amnesty, and Louis agreed not to support any future rebellion. The moderate nature of the treaty helped place Henry III's reign on a firmer footing.
Barons War, Second, (1264-1267) Civil war between Henry III and the Barons led by Simon de Montfort. The rebellion was caused by increased financial demands made by Henry III. Initially, de Montfort was triumphant, capturing Henry III at the battle of Lewes, but his victory was shortlived. The Barons argued amongst themselves, and Gilbert, earl of Gloucester and Roger Mortimer joined the Royalists, by then led by Prince Edward, the future Edward I. At the battle of Evesham (1265), the rebels were defeated, Simon de Montfort killed, and Henry III rescued. Peace was proclaimed on 16 September 1265, but the siege of Kenilworth, where de Montfort's son was besieged, went on for longer, while the last resistance was not ended until 1267.

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The Wars of Scottish Independence were a series of campaigns launched after the English invasion of Scotland in 1296. King Alexander III of Scotland died in 1286, leaving his three-year old daughter Margaret (the Maid of Norway) as his heir. When she died in Orkney in 1290, various claimants arose for the Scottish crown. The nobles of Scotland chose Edward I of England to arbitrate among the claimants, known as 'competitors'. The two main competitors were Robert the Bruce and John Balliol. In 1292 Edward picked Balliol, apparently believing that he would swear allegiance and Edward could gain Scotland as part of England. When Edward ordered Balliol to join the English campaign in France in 1295 he refused. Threatened by Edward, Balliol signed a tripartite treaty with France and Norway. Although Norway never acted upon it, the Franco-Scottish alliance, later known as the Auld Alliance, was effective until 1560. This brought about a swift invasion by England whose army defeated the Scots at the Battle of Dunbar (1296). Balliol was deposed and Scotland was occupied by England.
Wallace Period: After this defeat parts of Scotland rose up in revolt under William Wallace. Despite some notable successes, such as the Battle of Stirling Bridge in 1297, Wallace, fighting in the name of the King, was betrayed and executed by the English.
Bruce Period: The revolt calmed for a period, until Robert the Bruce, the grandson of the competitor of 1292, was crowned King of Scots in 1306. This time, the Scots were more successful and Robert the Bruce comprehensively defeated Edward II of England at the Battle of Bannockburn in 1314.
In 1320 the Declaration of Arbroath was sent by a group of Scottish nobles to the Pope affirming Scottish independence from England. In
1327, Edward II of England was deposed and killed. The invasion of the North of England by Robert the Bruce forced Edward III of England to sign the Treaty of Edinburgh-Northampton on May 1 in 1328, which recognised the independence of Scotland with Bruce as king.
Major events of the Scottish Wars of Independence: Battle of Dunbar (1296)
Battle of Stirling Bridge, 1297; Battle of Falkirk (1298); Fall of Stirling Castle, 1304; Battle of Methven, 1306; Battle of Bannockburn, 1314; Capture of Berwick, 1318; Declaration of Arbroath, 1320; Treaty of Edinburgh-Northampton, 1328
The Second Wars of Scottish Independence: English interference in Scottish affairs continued after the signing of the treaty, however, with active support given to Edward Balliol's claim to the Scottish throne. This is sometimes known as the second War of Scottish Independence. Two battles fought in this period are: Battle of Dupplin Moor, 1332; Battle of Halidon Hill, 1333

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The Roman invasion of Britain: Britain was the target of invasion by forces of the Roman Republic and Roman Empire several times during its history. In 55 BC, Julius Caesar landed on the coast, in what was intended as a reconnaissance mission. During his campaigns in Gaul, as recorded in Gallic Wars, he had determined that the Gauls were receiving aid from Britain. Towards the end of the summer, he decided that it would be useful to get some reliable information about the people, localities and harbours of the island, since little useful information was available from the Gauls or the merchants who visited it. First he sent out Caius Volusenus in a ship of war to investigate the coast, while in the meantime assembling a fleet of ships and settling an uprising by the Morini tribe of Gaul. Within days he received ambassadors from British tribes, promising that they would give hostages and submit to the Romans. He received them favourably and sent them back with Commius of the Atrebates, whom he thought would be influentual in Britain. Volusenus reported back after five days.
Caesar's fleet comprised about 80 transport ships for two legions. He also had ships of war and 18 ships of burden for his cavalry. Caesar sailed for Britain with the legions, but did not land immediately, since the British forces had gathered on the hills overlooking the shore and his cavalry had been delayed. After waiting at anchor for several hours, he sailed about seven miles to a place with an open shore. However the British under the leadership of Cassivelaunus, using cavalry and chariots, were able to follow the progress of the fleet and attacked the Romans as they attempted to land. The Romans were disadvantaged by the need to disembark in deep water due to the size of the ships, while the British attacked from the shallows. However the British were eventually driven
back with projectiles fired from the ships of war and the Romans managed to land and drive them off. The Romans established a camp and received ambassadors, and meeting again Commius who had been seized on arrival. Caesar demanded hostages: however a storm forced his still delayed cavalry back to the continent and many of his ships were damaged on the beach. With the Romans presumed to be disheartened and short of provisions, the British took the opportunity to renew the attack, ambushing one of the legions as it foraged near the Roman camp, making use of a form of cavalry attack that was novel to the Romans. However they were relieved by the remainder of the Roman force and the British were dispersed once again. After several days of storms, the British regrouped with larger forces. On attacking the Romans they were once again defeated, with a large number killed in retreat and the Romans laying waste to the surrounding area. Once again the British sent ambassadors, this time Caesar demanded double the number of hostages, to be delivered to Gaul (only two tribes eventually made good this promise). With the equinox drawing near, the Romans returned to Gaul.
Julius Caesar: 54 BC: In 54 BC, Caesar returned with a larger force. After taking hostages and receiving promises of tribute, Caesar returned to Rome.
Aulus Plautius: AD 43: The main (and most successful) invasion, occurred during the reign of the emperor Claudius. In AD 43, Aulus Plautius was appointed by Claudius as the general in charge of 4 Roman legions to invade Britain. The four legions were:Legio II Augusta, commanded by Vespasian (who became Emperor 25 years later). Legio IX Hispana; Legio XIV Gemina; Legio XX Valeria Victrix. These totalled about 20,000 men. In addition there were also about the same number of auxiliaries in the invasion force. The main landing is thought to have been at Richborough in modern Kent in Southeast England; an increasing number of archaeologists are questioning the evidence for this, and believe that at least part of the force may have come via another route, eg. the Solent. British resistance was led by the
sons of King Cunobelinus (Cymbeline in Shakespeare's play), Togidumnus and Caratacus. Emperor Claudius visited Britain briefly to take charge of the capture of Cunobelinus's capital, Camulodunum (modern Colchester). It is said he brought a war elephant with him. After this defeat, Caratacus fled to the Welsh mountains and continued the fight against the invaders. Britain was never fully conquered. The Roman occupation reached the River Clyde-River Forth area in AD 142 where the Antonine Wall was contructed before retreating to the earlier and more defensible Hadrian's Wall in the River Tyne-Solway Firth frontier area. This being previously constructed around AD 122. Conflict between some British tribes and the Roman invaders continued, although other tribes - such as the Iceni (of modern East Anglia), Atrebates (modern Sussex) and Brigantes (of northern 'England') - quickly accepted Roman influence and began to assimilate. By AD 47, the legions had penetrated as far south-west as Cornwall, as far west as Wales (where tribes under the leadership of Caractacus put up resistance but were defeated) and as far north as the Humber. The Romans began constructing a system of military roads, founded Londinium (modern London) and built a crossing over the Thames (near the site of present London Bridge). By AD 60, the frontier had been pushed further and more tribes had been taken under Roman 'protection'.

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Jacobite Wars, Jacobite was the name given to supporters of King James VII of Scotland and II of Britain who fled from the country in 1689 to escape an invading army led by William of Orange (also known as King Billy). There was fearthroughout Britain that James would re-instate Catholicism as the national religion so the parliaments invited his daughter Mary and her Protestant husband William to take over the throne. The decisive battle of the Boyne in Ireland saw James completely defeated and he left the British Isles. Bonnie Prince Charlie, after landing at Glenfinnan, in his bid to gain the British Throne.  Lord George Murray with an army of 2,000 Jacobites marched southward where they were meet  at Prestonpans by General  Sir John Cope and a Royal army of 3,000 men  On the 21st September.  The Jacobite's charged the  government troops and routed them. hundreds of Government troops were killed or wounded and over 1,000 were captured. with the Jacobite losses less than 150.  With this victory Charles Edward Stuart and the Jacobite army marched southwards into England capturing the towns of Carlisle, Penrith, Lancaster and Preston and getting as far as Nottingham before lack of supplies and new recruits forced him to heads back to Scotland. In 1685 when James II set out to obtain religious toleration for Catholics in Ireland, he had no idea that in less than four years he would be leading an army of Catholics against William of Orange. Like James, Ireland was subject to the effects of European events that were wholly beyond its control. When William of Orange precipitated the Glorious Revolution in 1688 and dethroned James II, Ireland was the least of his concerns as he engaged in a power struggle with King Louis XIV. Pressured by France, James arrived in Ireland with hope of regaining his throne. In many respects, the Jacobite army was a French pawn to be used against William. Although the war in Ireland was only a secondary front in a much larger war between the European powers, the result determined the political and religious freedoms of those who would live in Ireland for the following two centuries. "The two sides were more evenly matched that in any other Irish war" (Byrne 487). Because victory was guaranteed to neither side, the Jacobite war is one of the most critical points in Irish history.
When Charles II died in 1685, James II became the King of England, Scotland, and Ireland, and the Catholic revival began. Securing legal and enduring toleration for his Catholic co-religionists was James' primary objective from 1685-1690 (Maguire 46). Consequently, less than six months after ascending to the throne, James made Catholic champion Richard Talbot earl of Tyrconnell. Within two years of assuming command of an Irish army regiment, Tyrconnell was appointed lord deputy of Ireland on 12 February 1687. While in command of his regiment, Tyrconnell catholicized and enlarged its composition by adding over eight hundred catholic soldiers (Maguire 46). By the time James appointed Tyrconnell lord deputy, 67 percent of the soldiers were Catholic and only a few Protestant officers had not been dismissed. Tyrconnell, acting as lord deputy, also filled important civil posts with Catholics. Within a year after Tyrconnell's own appointment, a majority of judges, magistrates, and the central administration were also Catholic (Maguire 49). As Catholic control increased, so did the fears of the Irish and English Protestants. Irish Protestants feared losing their land. In England, Ireland was viewed as a blueprint or precursor of James' plans for England (Maguire 34). Though James' capable army could suppress any local disorder, civil unrest grew in England and the threat of civil war concerned the English parliament (Maguire 36). The possibility of a civil war in England sparked fears in the Dutch Republic as well. William of Orange, James' son in law and national leader of the Dutch Republic, had long hoped to supplement his forces with England's in order to mobilize against France's Louis XIV. A civil war would have left England in disarray and unable to contribute to William's campaign against King Louis. A civil war in England, an English coalition with France, an attack by Louis, and James choosing a Catholic as the successor to the throne instead of William's wife Mary, were all possibilities that spurred William and his forces to proceed into England and land in Devon on 5 November, 1688 (Maguire 37). To the Tory and Whig party members in England, William's arrival was not a surprise. Fearing civil war and chaos as well, leading Whigs and Tories invited William to take control of the country in July (Maguire xii). In September, William wrote the Declaration which stated his reasons for invading England and then distributed it throughout Europe. James' decision to flee to France on 23 December 1688 and Williams' bloodless ascension to the throne completed what historians call, "The Glorious Revolution." William's concern about Ireland after gaining control of the throne remained minimal until James landed at Kinsale, Co. Cork in March of 1689 with French troops and munitions. To James, Ireland was the starting point from which he could regain the throne in England. Initially, William viewed Ireland only as a hurdle that had to be negotiated before he could concentrate on France and his rival Louis XIV. James' arrival in Ireland with French support forced William to focus his attention on the country that would become the battleground of the "Cogadh Da' Ri', " or war of the two kings (Maguire 61).
When James arrived in Ireland, "he found in Ireland a Catholic body politic loyal to the Crown but not loyal to the Crown's wider English interests" (Maguire 57). The Jacobite Parliament that James had indirectly created demanded the repeal of the Restoration land settlement. The Irish people cared less for the highly political power struggle between James, Louis, and William, and more about the local power struggle between Catholics and Protestants. Granted, William claimed to be the savior of Protestantism, and James, the supporter of Catholicism. Both, however, were proponents of tolerance and would not have begun the war in the name of religion alone. In the eyes of the divided Irish people, the outcome of the war would determine religious freedoms (Maguire 139). The common people of Ireland had few hopes of owning land regardless of what religion the country's leaders subscribed to (Maguire 139). Those few families who owned land, however, had considerable power to control of religious freedoms of the people. From 1689 to 1691, war engulfed Ireland. James, who had never intended to release Ireland from the crown's control and still wished to return to England as King, had a difficult time leading the country. Fearing that he would lose the support of his Irish subjects, James acquiesced to legislation that would repeal the Restoration land settlement and a declaratory act that asserted that the Parliament of England could not legislate for Ireland (Byrne 489). James would not, however, convene courts of claims nor would he further the Catholic church in Ireland by offering anything more than "liberty of conscience (Byrne 490)." In order to raise funds for the needs of his war, James sponsored the brass, copper, and metal coinage of a million Lire called "gun-money." Before James could begin his march to England, however, he had to overcome the protestant dissenters in Ireland. The siege of Irish Protestant stronghold Derry, proved more difficult than anticipated by the Jacobite regime. Hindered by a lack of equipment, an "undisciplined army, and an unenterprising command," Jacobite failed in their attempts to seize the city and instead had to resort to a blockade (Byrne 492). Under Major-general Kirk, two Williamite merchantmen broke through the boom that spanned the river and "removed any prospect that Derry would be starved into surrender" (Byrne 493). The resistance of Derry lowered the hopes of the Jacobites while providing the Williamites their first success in Ireland. Enniskillen, a second center of resistance, also defended itself well against overwhelming odds. These two Protestant bastions thwarted James' attempt to gain control of the north. The Jacobite army's failures at Derry and Enniskillen were soon followed by disorder and widespread desertion (493). The French officers detested living in Ireland and their Irish allies (Maguire 62). James' hopes of defeating William in England were crushed, however, Tyrconnell "showed remarkable energy in rebuiding the army and organising the army to resist invasion" (493). William's February 22, 1689 proclamation that called for surrender with promises of property and toleration had failed to produce a Jacobite response. The Jacobites wouldn't submit to Protestant control without a fight. Consequently, William chose the duke of Schomberg to lead an Irish expedition that would bring Ireland under Williamite control. Schomberg and his army of 19,000 landed in Belfast on 13 August 1689 and marched as far south as Dundalk, where he waited for supply ships to bring much needed provisions. After two months of waiting for adequate supplies, the wet and marshy terrain that Schomberg occupied just north of Dundalk took its toll. "Reports came in that the Williamite army was short of provisions and riddled with sickness (Byrne 495)." Hearing this, James decided to advance toward Dundalk and challenge Schomberg. Schomberg's subsequent decline provided the Jacobites a moral victory before both sides withdrew to winter quarters (Byrne 495). Determined to gain control of Ireland, William and a fleet of 300 ships arrived in Belfast on 14 June 1690. Comprised of Dutch, Germans, Danes, English, and Huguenots, Williams army of 36,000 immediately marched south until he met James at the Boyne. James' force of 25,000 Irish and French troops waited behind the south bank. James, disregarding French advice to abandon the "indefensible" and "fordable" position on the Boyne, made the defeat of the Jacobites almost inevitable (Byrne 498). On the first day of bombardment, William was slightly wounded. His tactics, however, were sound. Sending a small force upstream to divert the enemy strength from the fords of Oldbridge, William concentrated the mass of his forces on a frontal attack. The diversion worked better than expected, causing James and the majority of his army to also move upstream. When William crossed at the fords of Oldbridge, he encountered only Tyrconnell and his cavalry. After a valiant battle in which Schomberg and George Walker, the hero of Derry, were killed, the surprised and outflanked Jacobite army retreated in disarray (Byrne 498). The first into Dublin, James then scurried to Kinsale and abandoned Ireland on July 4, 1690 (Byrne 498).
After the victory at the Boyne, William possessed control of Dublin and most of eastern Ireland. Although Tyrconnell and the French desired to make terms with the Williamites, "the darling of the army", Patrick Sarsfield, opposed surrender and prompted the Jacobite's greatest victory at Limerick (Byrne 501). The resistance had gathered momentum after turning back a Williamite attack at Athlone. A naturally strong position on the Shannon, Limerick provided the rallying Jacobites with another opportunity to foil William's progress. Sarsfield's heroics stopped a Williamite convoy which was carrying ammunition and heavy guns toward the Shannon (Byrne 501). The rest of the Irish resistance group courageously held the city and prompted William to return to England (Byrne 501). The success at Limerick did not, however, keep the French from leaving. Full of dissension, the Irish resistance gained small victories while slowly giving up city after city to a larger and more equipped Williamite force led by Dutch general Ginkel. Offering security of estates to officers and the promise of other liberal measures, Ginkel avoided a second possible catastrophe at Limerick by finally convincing Sarsfield and the Irish resistance to quit the fight and come to the bargaining table. Many requests by the Irish leadership were granted. All those in the Irish army were given free transport to France if desired. For those who stayed in Ireland, the treaty of Limerick applied. The first article promised Catholics freedom of worship "as was consistent with the laws of Ireland" during the reign of King Charles II (Byrne 506). The second article granted pardon and property rights to those who held out in Limerick as well as those in any other Irish garrison as long as they swore allegiance to William (506). Twelve thousand men followed Sarsfield to France to become the renowned "wild geese" regiments of Ireland. Of the remaining men, two thousand went home, and a thousand joined William's forces in the Netherlands to fight against France (Byrne 506). Although the Jacobite war may only have been a small wrinkle in William's greater scheme of defeating France's King Louis XIV, the war decided the balance of power in Ireland for the following two centuries. Ending the Catholic revival and securing James a spot in the bitter memories of many, the Jacobite war reestablished Protestant control of Ireland. Soon after the treaty of Limerick, William and Mary imposed a series of penal laws that limited the rights of Catholics even more. To ensure that Protestant ascendancy would never again be threatened, Catholics faced a future of renewed oppression and political impotence.

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Hundred Years War (1337-1453) a series of conflicts between England and France in 1337–1453. Its causes were the French claim (as their fief) to Gascony in southwest France, held by the English kings, and medieval trade rivalries in Flanders. Medieval England and France had a long history of war before 1337, and the Hundred Years’ War has sometimes been interpreted as merely an intensification of these struggles. It was caused by fears of French intervention in Scotland, which the English were trying to subdue, and by the claim of England’s Edward III (through his mother Isabella, daughter of Philip IV of France) to the crown of France. The two main causes of friction between England and France were Flemish trade, which was dependant on English wool, and Gascony, held by the kings of England as vassals of the kings of France. The exact nature of that relationship had caused conflict before, but the Hundred Years War was intensified by Edward III's claim to the French throne. The war had been triggered by the confiscation of Gascony by Philip VI, although that had been done before as a diplomatic ploy, and had not led to long drawn out conflicts. This time, there were other causes of friction between the two nations, not least of which was French support for the Scots, which culminated in the movement of a large French fleet from Marseilles to Normandy, possibly in prepartion to aid the Scots. Edward III's initial strategy was to form a ring of alliances against France. To this end he spent large amounts of money building up alliances, and in 1339 was able to take to the field with a huge army formed in a large part of his German and Flemish allies. However, no battle followed, and both sides retreated. The only notable event of this early period was the naval battle of Sluys (1340), won by Edward III. The huge cost of the alliances and the lack of success led to a political crisis in England in late 1340. The war next moved to Brittany, where the death of duke John III in April 1341 led to a disputed succession between John de Montfort, the younger brother of John III, and Charles of Blois, who had married the daughter of an older brother. By the end of 1341, Charles of Blois had occupied Brittany with French aid, and John de Montfort had allied with the English, who sent a series of armies into Brittany, including one led by Edward III in 1342. However, it was not until 1346 that a decisive battle was fought (Crecy). Edward III landed in Normandy, intending to march east to meet his Flemish allies. Philip of France had a much larger army in the field, and the two forces marched and countermarched for some time, before battle was forced at Crecy. Edward III was able to choose the battlefield, and from his defensive position was able to inflict a crushing defeat on the French. After the victory at Crecy, Edward marched on to besiege Calais, which fell in 1347 and became a key English base for the rest of the war. The next seven years were quiet, but the war simmered on, and in 1356, Edward the Black Prince led an army from Gascony on a raid into France. King John of France, with a larger army, seems to have been determined to force a battle, and the eventual fight came at Poitiers. The French attempted to copy the English tactics by dismounting their knights, but they did not have the missile troops required to support that tactic, and the battle ended in disaster, with the capture of King John it's most dramatic result. Edward III now found himself in a position of overwhelming advantage. In 1359-60 he attempted to bring the war to a end with one last great campaign, but the Rheims campaign had no significant result, and in 1360 the first phase of the war was ended by the Treaty of Bretigny, in which Edward III was granted full sovereignty over an expanded Gascony and the area arround Calais, in return for renouncing his claim to the French throne. The treaty was not fully implemented, and although peace was maintained for some years, the war was not over. The next phase of the war was provoked by Charles V of France. In a dispute over taxation, two Gascon lords appealed to the king of France. According the treaties of 1360 he was no longer able to intervene, but he did so anyway, in effect repudiating the treaty, and during 1369 the war was resumed. This second period of the war went entirely the French way. They refused to give battle, and harried the English garrisons instead, slowly reducing the area under English control until all of Edward III's conquests other than Calais had been lost. This phase of the war petered out after the death of Charles V in 1380. A truce was made in 1388, which was apparently cemented by the marriage of Richard II to the daughter of Charles VI in 1396. The war did not resume until the reign of Henry V. His father, Henry IV, had been too weak, and too often threatened by rebellions, including that of Owen Glyn Dwr, to get involved in French wars. Once again, the status of Gascony was the trigger of the war, and Henry crossed to France in 1415, beginning his campaign with the capture of Harfleur, before marching east with the intention of reaching Calais. Henry's army was small, tired, and the dreadfull autumn weather left them in a very dangerous position. The French could have afforded to led Henry's army disintegrate under the strain. Instead, they decided to fight, and Henry won his amazing victory at Agincourt, against overwhelming odds. After Agincourt, Henry moved to conquer Normandy. While he was engaged in the conquest of the duchy, the rest of France was occupied with the civil war between the Burgundians and Armagnacs. Once Henry had conquered Normandy, he was prepared offer terms, and accept the borders of the 1360 treaties along with Normandy. However, at this point his position was greatly strengthened by the murder in September 1419 of Duke John the Fearless of Burgundy by the Dauphin. This blatant act forced the Burgundian faction to ally with Henry V, who suddenly found himself in control of most of Northern France, including Paris itself. The same year saw Henry acknowledged by Charles VI as his heir. However, Henry died in 1422 as a result of dysentry contracted during the siege of Meaux, before Charles VI, and was never crowned. His son, Henry VI, was crowned King of France, and for some years of his reign, the English continued to advance under John, duke of Bedford, Henry V's brother. However, as the area under their control increased, the speed at which they could advance slowed, until in 1428 the siege of Orleans began. The English success was dependent on the support of the Burgundians, and the inability or inaction of the Dauphin. The balance of power changed in 1429, with the appearance of Joan of Arc, whose main impact was an increase in the morale of the French troops. The siege of Orleans was being carried out by far too small an army, and when Joan of Arc was able to get into the city, the revitalised defenders turned on the beseigers, who were spread very thinly around the city, and easily drove them off. Joan and her army then won a series of victories over the English, restoring the morale of the French. Joan herself was captured in March 1430, and the immediate danger passed. However, from this time support for the Burgundian faction began to drift, and they finally changed sides in 1435. England alone could not hope to win, and the next twenty years saw the war lost slowly, as town by town fell to the French, until, in 1454, the last English army in Gascony was defeated at Castillon, and only Calais remained in English hands.

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The Indian Mutiny (also known as the Sepoy Mutiny) as known to the British or The First War Of Indian Independence as known to the Indians was a period of uprising in northern and central India against British rule in 1857-1858. It is also known as the Sepoy Rebellion, the Great Mutiny, and the Revolt of 1857. It is widely acknowledged to be the first-ever united rebellion against colonial rule in India. In 1857 the native troops of the Bengal army rose against their colonial masters. The ensuing insurrection was to become the bloodiest in the history of the British Empire.
Causes: The rebellion spread beyond the armed forces, but it did not result in a complete popular uprising as its leaders hoped. It was also largely limited to the area of Bengal and the North. Indeed, several areas actively supported the British. Sikh and Pathan units from the Punjab and North West Frontier were crucial to the eventual defeat of the rebellion, as were the Gurkhas from Nepal. Indians were dissatisfied with the heavy-handed rule of the British East India Company who had embarked on a project of rather rapid westernization. For example, they intended to replace native princes. The leader of the Marathas, Nana Sahib, was denied his titles in 1853 and his pension was stopped. The last of the Moghul emperors, Bahadur Shah Zafar II, was told that he would be the end of his dynasty. If a landowner did not leave a male heir, the land became the property of the Company via the Doctrine of Lapse carried out by Governor-General Dalhousie and his successor, Lord Canning. The British also abolished child marriage, Sati, and hunted down the Thuggees. Indians came to believe -- with some justification -- that the British intended to convert them to Christianity. Some began to spread the rumor of a prophecy that the Company's rule would end after 100 years. Their rule in India had begun with the Battle of Plassey in 1757.
Sepoys: Sepoys were native Indian soldiers serving in the army of the East India Company under British NCOs and officers trained in the company's own military school in England. The presidencies of Bombay, Madras and Bengal maintained their own army each with its own commander-in-chief. They fielded more troops than the official army of the British Empire. In 1857 there were 257,000 sepoys. The sepoys were dissatisfied with various aspects of army life. Their pay was relatively low and after the British troops conquered Awadh and the Punjab, the soldiers no longer received extra pay for service there, because they were no longer considered "foreign
missions". In addition, the Company also recruited Indians of other castes than Brahmins and Rajputs; the latter is a traditional warrior caste in India. In 1856 sepoys were required to serve overseas which, to them, would have meant the loss of caste. The most famous reason is the (rumored) use of cow and pig fat in Pattern 1853 Enfield (P/53) rifle cartridges. Since soldiers had to break the cartridges with their teeth before they could load them into their rifles, this was offensive to Hindu and Muslim soldiers, who considered tasting beef and pork to be against their respective religious tenets. In February 1857 sepoys refused to use their new cartridges. The British claimed to have replaced the cartridges with new ones and tried to make sepoys make their own grease from beeswax and vegetable oils but the rumor persisted. In March 1857 Mangal Pande of the 34th Native Infantry attacked his British sergeant, wounded an adjutant. General Hearsay, who says Pande was in some kind of "religious frenzy" ordered a jemadar to arrest him but the jemadar refused. Mangal Pande then turned the gun against himself and used his foot to try to pull the trigger to shoot himself. He failed, was captured and then hanged on April 7 along with the jemadar. The whole regiment was dismissed as a collective punishment. Other sepoys felt this was too harsh. A couple of weeks later, on May 9 in Meerut, 85 troopers of the 3rd Light Cavalry refused to use their cartridges. They were imprisoned, sentenced to ten years of hard labor, and stripped of their uniforms in public.
Mutiny begins: Serious unrest began the next day, on May 10, 1857 when the XI Native Cavalry of the Bengal Army in Meerut mutinied. Supposedly, the town prostitutes made fun of their manhood and thus goaded, they went to the prison and released the chained sepoys. They then attacked the European cantonment where they killed all Europeans and any Indian Christians they could find. This included all women and children from master to the servant. Then they burned the houses and marched towards Delhi. Initially, British troops did not pursue them. The next day in Delhi they were joined by other Indians from the local bazaar. They attacked the Red Fort, killed five British - including a British officer and two women - and demanded Bahadur Shah Zafar II to reclaim his throne. He reluctantly agreed and became the nominal leader of the rebellion. The sepoys proceeded to kill every European and Christian in the city.
Supporters and non-supporters: The rebels did not agree in everything. Many Indians joined the rebels and attempted to restore both Moghul and Maratha emperors. Rani Lakshmi Bai, the female leader of Jhansi which had been claimed in 1853 by the British, led a strong rebellion. There were calls for jihad by some leaders, including the millennarian Ahmedullah Shah. Many Muslim artisans fought for religious reasons. However, not all Indian peoples supported the rebellion. The Sikhs of Punjab did not cherish the idea of return of Moghul rule and fought in British ranks. In Awadh, Sunni Muslims did not want to see a return to Shiite rule, so they often refused to join what they perceived to be a Shia rebellion. Most of the south of the country remained passive.
Retaking Delhi: The British were slow to strike back at first but eventually two columns left Meerut and Simla. They proceeded slowly towards the Delhi and fought, killed, and hanged numerous Indians along the way. At the same time, the British moved regiments from the Crimean War, and diverted European regiments headed for China to India. After a march lasting two months, the British fought the main army of the rebels near Delhi in Badl-ke-Serai and drove them back to Delhi. The British established a base on the Delhi ridge to the north of the city and the siege began. However the encirclement was hardly complete—the rebels could easily receive resources and reinforcements. Later they were joined by the Punjab Movable Column of Sikh soldiers and elements of Gurkha Brigade. Eagerly-awaited heavy siege guns did not guarantee an easy victory against numerical superiority of the sepoys. Eventually the British broke through Kashmiri gate and began a week of street fighting. Sikh troops left after the death of their commander. When the British reached the Red Fort, Bahadur Shah had already fled to Humayun's tomb. The British had retaken the city. British arrested Bahadur Shah later and the next day British officer
William Hodson shot his sons Mirza Moghul, Mirza Khizr Sultan, and Mirza Abu Bakr under his own authority. Their heads were presented to their father the next day. Kanpur: In June, sepoys under General Wheeler in Kanpur rebelled - apparently with tacit approval of Nana Sahib - and besieged the European entrenchment. The British lasted three weeks of siege without water, suffering constant casualties. On June 25 Nana Sahib requested surrender and Wheeler had little choice but to accept. When British boarded riverboats, their pilots fled setting fire to the boats, and exchange of fire ensued. The Indians fired at the boats with grapeshot and filled the river with corpses. Only one boat with 4 men escaped. The surviving women and children were led to Bibi-Ghar (the house of the women) in Cawnpore. On July 15, three men entered it and killed everyone with knives and hatchets and hacked them to pieces. Their bodies were thrown down a well. The British were aghast and the pro-Indian proponents lost all their support. Cawnpore became a war cry for the British soldiers for the rest of the conflict. Nana Sahib disappeared. When the British retook Cawnpore later, the soldiers took their sepoy prisoners to the Bibi-Ghar and forced them to lick the bloodstains from the walls and floor. Then they hanged them.
Lucknow: The state of Oudh (modern-day Uttar Pradesh) went into rebellion very soon after events in Meerut. British commander of Lucknow, Henry Lawrence, had enough time to fortify his position inside the Residency compound. He had 1700 men, including loyal sepoys. The rebels’ initial assaults were not successful and they begun a barrage of artillery and musket fire into the compound. Lawrence was one of the first casualties. The rebels tried to breach the walls with explosives and bypass them via underground tunnels that led to underground close combat. After 90 days of siege, numbers of British were reduced to 300 loyal sepoys, 350 British soldiers and 550 noncombatants. On September 25 a thousand soldiers of the Highlanders under General Sir Henry Havelock joined them, in what was known as 'The First Relief of Lucknow'. In October another Highlander unit under Sir Colin Campbell came to relieve them and on November 18 they evacuated the compound—women and children first. They fled to now-retaken Cawnpore.
Retaliation: From the end of 1857, the British had begun to gain ground again. Lucknow was retaken in March 1858. Due to the bloody start of the rebellion and especially after the apparent treachery of Nana Sahib and butchery in Cawnpore, the British believed that they were justified in using similar tactics. The British press and British government did not advocate clemency of any kind, though Governor General
Canning tried to be sympathetic to native sensibilities, earning the scornful sobriquet "Clemency Canning". Soldiers took very few prisoners and often executed them later. Whole villages were wiped out for apparent pro-rebel sympathies. The Indians called it Devil’s Wind. The last rebels were defeated in Gwalior on June 20 1858. Sporadic fighting continued to 1859 but most of the rebels were subdued. The British adopted the old Mughal punishment for mutiny and sentenced rebels were lashed to the mouth of cannons and blown to pieces. It was the crudest war India had seen in a long time, with both sides resorting to what can only be described as barbarism.
Reorganization
In the aftermath of the rebellion, the British government decided to take India under the direct control of Crown under the rule of British Raj. A Viceroy was appointed to represent the Crown. The British embarked on a program of reform, trying to integrate Indian higher castes and rulers into the government and abolishing the East India Company. They stopped land grabs, decreed religious tolerance and admitted Indians into civil service, albeit mainly as subordinates. They also increased the number of British soldiers in relation to native ones and allowed only British soldiers to handle artillery. In 1877 Queen Victoria took the title of Empress of India. Bahadur Shah was exiled to Rangoon where he died in 1862, finally bringing the Moghul dynasty to an end.

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The Battle of Agincourt was fought on October 25, 1415 – St. Crispian's Day – not far from Calais in northern France as part of the Hundred Years' War between the heavily outnumbered army of King Henry V of England and that of Charles VI of France, the latter under the command not of the incapacitated king himself but of the Constable Charles d'Albret and various notable French noblemen of the Armagnac party. One of the greatest moments in this battle was before it even started. The English King Henry V gave a great speech that rallied his men to fight. This speech was adapted into Shakespeare's Henry V. The English army prevailed against the heavily armoured French cavalry which floundered in the mud and was wiped out in the hail of arrows that rained down on them.
The battle was fought in the defile formed by the wood of Agincourt and that of Tramecourt, at the northern exit of which the army under d'Albret, constable of France, had placed itself so as to bar the way to Calais against the English forces which had been campaigning on the Somme. The night of the 24th of October was spent by the two armies on the ground, and the English had but little shelter from the heavy rain which fell. Early on the 25th, St Crispin's day, Henry arrayed his little army (about 1000 men-at-arms, 6000 archers, and a few thousands of other foot). It is probable that the usual three "battles" were drawn up in line, each with its archers on the flanks and the dismounted men-at-arms in the centre; the archers being thrown forward in wedge-shaped salients, almost exactly as at the Battle of Cr cy. The French, on the other hand, were drawn up in three lines, each line formed in deep masses. They were at least four times more numerous than the English, but restricted by the nature of the ground to the same extent of front, they were unable to use their full weight (compare Bannockburn); further, the deep mud prevented their artillery from taking part, and the crossbowmen were as usual relegated to the rear of the knights and men-at-arms. All were dismounted save a few knights and men-at-arms on the flanks, who were intended to charge the archers of the enemy. Prior to the battle King Henry spoke to his troops from a little gray horse. French accounts state that in his speech he told his men that he and the dukes, earls and other nobles had little to worry about if the French won because they would be captured and ransomed for a good price. The common soldier on the other hand was worth little and so he told them that they had better fight hard.
For three hours after sunrise there was no fighting; then Henry, finding that the French would not advance, moved his army farther into the defile. The archers fixed the pointed stakes, which they carried to ward off cavalry charges, and opened the engagement with flights of arrows. The chivalry of France was not an army but a group of knights who came together by request from Charles VI. They were undisciplined and careless of the lessons of the battles of Cr cy and Poitiers, were quickly stung into action; the French mounted men charged, only to be driven back in confusion. The constable himself headed the leading line of dismounted men-at-arms; weighted with their armour, and sinking deep into the mud with every step, they yet reached and engaged the English men-at-arms. For a time the fighting was severe. The thin line of the defenders was borne back and King Henry was almost beaten to the ground. But at this moment the archers, taking their hatchets, swords or other weapons, penetrated the gaps in the now disordered French, who could not move to cope with their unarmoured assailants, and were slaughtered or taken prisoners to a man. The second line of the French came on, only to be engulfed in the m e; its leaders, like those of the first line, were killed or taken, and the commanders of the third sought and found their death in the battle, while their men rode off to safety. The only success for the French was a sally from Azincourt castle behind the lines. Ysambart D'Azincourt took over the King's baggage. While this was happening the King was trying to get his own nobles to kill their prisoners. Unlike him, they profited from the battle by getting ransom and they refused to kill their captives. In addition, they knew it was unchristian and against their code. The King had to order the commoners to do his butchery.
The closing scene of the battle was a half-hearted attack made by a body of fugitives, which led merely to the slaughter of the French prisoners, which was ordered by Henry because he had not enough men both to guard them and to meet the attack. In the morning Henry came back to the battlefield and killed any wounded French who survived the night in the open. The total loss of the English is stated at thirteen men-at-arms (including Edward, Duke of York, grandson of Edward III) and about 100 of the foot. The French lost 5000 of noble birth killed, including the constable, 3 dukes, 5 counts and 90 barons (see below); 1000 more were taken prisoners, amongst them the duke of Orl ans (the Charles d'Orl ans of literature). It should also be noted that this was before the time of Joan of Arc.
Recent experiments at Agincourt and elsewhere suggest that the English archers inflicted little damage on the
heavily armored French knights and men-at-arms with their arrows because of the recent adoption of steel (rather than iron) for armor. It is likely then that most of the casualties of the archery were the less-armored horses, causing the mounted fighters to be thrown down onto the muddy ground, where they had difficulty in arising. In addition, the French troops were exhausted by struggling through the quagmire which they were churning up on the battlefield and arrived piecemeal at the English line of battle. A second feature contributing to the French defeat was the funnel-shaped battle field that caused the French forces to converge as they approached the English lines. As they moved forward, they jostled each other and tripped over the bodies of the fallen horses and men. It is possible that many actually suffocated as they were trampled into the mud by the following soldiers and knights. Into this chaos the lightly armored archers moved, much more nimbly than the heavily armored French, and were able to inflict severe damage on the enemy with their short swords, knives, mallets, and other tools. This suggests that the archers did considerably more damage as infantry than as archers.

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The crusades to the Holy Land lasted from 1095 until 1291, but the crusading movement came to encompass a much wider array of military expeditions -- against Jews, Spanish Muslims, European heretics, Baltic pagans, and eventually Native Americans. We will study the deep roots of the crusading movement in Western Christian society; the ways in which the crusades brought three world cultures (The West, Byzantium, Islam) into contact and confrontation; the type of cultural interaction that took place, and the continued vitality of the crusading idea in the expansion of Western Europe. The success of the Seljuk Turks stimulated a response from Europe in the form of the First Crusade. A counter offensive launched in 1097 by the Byzantine emperor with the aid of Western crusaders dealt the Turks a decisive defeat. Konya fell to the crusaders, who compelled the Turks to provide them with reconnaissance on their march to Jerusalem. In a few years of campaigning, Byzantine rule was restored in the western third of Anatolia, and the crusaders carved out feudal states there and in Syria as vassals of the emperor. A Turkish revival in the 1140s nullified many of the Christian gains, but greater damage was done to Byzantine security by dynastic strife in Constantinople (Istanbul) in which the largely French contingents of the Fourth Crusade and their Venetian allies intervened. In 1204 the crusaders installed Count Baldwin of Flanders in the Byzantine capital as emperor of the so-called Latin Empire, dismembering the old empire into tributary states where Western feudal institutions were transplanted intact. Independent Greek kingdoms were established at Nicaea (Iznik) and Trebizond (Trabzon) and in Epirus from remnant Byzantine provinces. Turks allied with Greeks in Anatolia against the Latins; Greeks allied with Turks against the Mongols. In 1261 Michael Palaologus of Nicaea drove the Latins from Constantinople (Istanbul) and restored the Byzantine Empire but as an essentially Balkan state reduced in size to Thrace and northwestern Anatolia. Rum survived in the late thirteenth century as a vassal of the Mongols, who had already subjugated the Great Seljuk sultanate at Baghdad. Mongol influence in the region had disappeared by the 1330s, leaving behind gazi amirates that competed for supremacy. From the caotic conditions that prevailed throughout the Middle East, however, a new power emerged in Anatolia - that of the Ottoman Turks. The Crusades were a series of military expeditions spanning some 200 years. Their aim was the recovery of Jerusalem and the Holy Land from Muslim control, and the protection of pilgrim routes. A total of eight separate Crusades represent only the peaks of military activity during what was an almost continuous campaign. The Crusades were a series of several military campaigns sanctioned by the Papacy that took place during the 11th through 13th centuries. They began as Catholic endeavors to capture Jerusalem from the Muslims but developed into territorial wars. Later crusades were called against the remaining pagan nations of Europe such as the Polabians and Lithuania, and against heresy, such as the crusade against Bohemia, 1418-1437 (see Northern Crusades). The initial conquest of Palestine by the forces of Islam in the 7th century did not interfere much with pilgrimage to Christian holy sites or the security of monasteries and Christian communities in the Holy Land of Christendom. However, in the year 1009 the Fatimid caliph of Cairo, al-Hakim bi-Amr Allah, had the Church of the Holy Sepulchre destroyed. His successor permitted the Byzantine Empire to rebuild it, and pilgrimage was permitted again. The decisive loss of the Byzantine army to the Seljuk Turks at the Battle of Manzikert in 1071 brought the beginning of Byzantine pleas for troops and support from the West. The term, "crusade," has since carried a connotation in the west of being a 'righteous campaign,' usually to "root out evil," or to fight for a just cause. In the Arab world, the equivalent term is jihad, while "crusade" is term which connotes a hostile and foreign invasion by "infidels," those disrespectful or defiling of the Muslim culture. This period coincided with a religious revival, and ecclesiastical restructuring in the West. This was reflected in the monastery of Cluny in France, founded by Duke William the Pius of Aquitaine in 910. From it arose the Benedictine order, whose rigorous monastic rule was symptomatic of a radical change in religious thinking. It also came under the sole authority of the pope rather than a temporal, feudal lord. A further manifestation of the religious revival was a large increase in the number of pilgrimages to the Holy Land, a practice which was greatly upset by the capture of Jerusalem (1072) by the Seljuq (Seljuk) Turks.
The original impetus behind the Crusades was the rise to power of the Seljuq Turks in the Middle East during the 11th-c. They progressed from acting as mercenaries for the decadent Abbasid Caliphs of Baghdad to overthrowing the caliphate and assuming control of the area (1055). Their territorial ambitions extended W towards the Byzantine Empire, the capital of which was Constantinople. A base was established there (1071) by the Seljuq leader, Alp Arslan, who had defeated the Byzantine army under Romanus IV Diogenes (?--1072). In 1092, with Nicaea under Turkish control and Muslims perilously close to Jerusalem, the Byzantine emperor Alexius I Comnenus, having earlier employed Seljuq mercenaries to defend his lands against Norman raids led by Robert Guiscard (1015--85), appealed to the West for help in removing them. In response to Alexius's appeal, Pope Urban II proclaimed a Crusade at the Council of Clermont (18 Nov 1095), and promised total absolution to all participants. He exhorted Western leaders to put aside their differences and unite in a common cause and a common Christianity, and go to the aid of the Eastern Christians. Urban's call did not fall only on the ears of the knights; Crusaders volunteered from all strata of mediaeval society. The first expedition (known as the People's Crusade) was by an army of some 20 000 peasants
who, having been aroused by the rhetoric of preachers such as Peter the Hermit and Walter the Penniless (nd), were hastily shipped into Asia by an unwelcoming Alexius, and were annihilated by the Turks on their arrival at Nicaea. The main force, known as the First Crusade (1096--99), was the mission of several separate armies, each with their own leader. Chief amongst these were Raymond of Saint-Gilles, Count of Toulouse (1041?--1105), and leader of the largest force; Godfrey of Bouillon, Duke of Lower Lorraine; Bohemond I of Taranto, the son of Guiscard; Robert of Flanders (1030?--93); Hugh of Vermandois and Baldwin of Boulogne (1058?--1118), brothers of the French king Philip I; and Stephen of Blois (of England). The French bishop of le Puy, Adhémar (?--1098) was appointed papal legate and nominal leader of the Crusade, but was wounded and temporarily captured. Robert of Curthose, Duke of Normandy and eldest son of William I, the Conqueror, also participated. Indeed, his absence from home lost him the succession. As with the peasants who had preceded them, the Crusaders who amassed in Asia in 1097 found themselves unwelcome. Alexius did not know how to handle so large a combined force in his land, and had really wanted Western mercenaries to help him recover his empire. He had little concern for the Holy Land. For their part, many of the participating barons were equally intent on securing land for themselves, and this was not lost on Alexius. However, despite lack of support from the Byzantine people and appalling privations in the heat, the Crusaders took Antioch (3 Jun 1098), after which Adhémar died from disease. Eventually, too, Jerusalem fell (Jul 1099). The entire Muslim population of the Holy City was slaughtered. Godfrey of Bouillon was elected as ruler of Jerusalem, despite promises to Alexius that recaptured lands would be returned to him, and took the title "Defender of the Holy Sepulchre'. He established a kingdom comprising four crusader states: Edessa, Antioch, Tripoli, and Jerusalem. Elite, semi-monastic orders of knighthood began to form during the 12th-c, and were to play an important role in the creation and defence of Christian strongholds throughout the crusading period. The Knights Templar were first established c.1120 to safeguard pilgrim routes. Later, adopting Benedictine rule under the patronage of St Bernard of Clairvaux, they achieved papal recognition at the Council of Troyes (1128). The Knights Hospitallers of St John of Jerusalem originated from a charitable organization formed to care for sick pilgrims to the Holy Land. Under their first grand master, Raymond du Puy (nd), the order took on its predominantly military role.
When, in 1144, Edessa fell to the Muslim ruler, Zangi (1084--1146), St Bernard urged King Louis VII of France (who was accompanied by his wife Eleanor of Aquitaine) and King Conrad III of Germany to undertake a further Crusade. This Second Crusade (1147--8), proclaimed by Pope Eugenius III (pontiff 1145--53), failed completely because of rivalry and uncomfortable alliances between its leaders. Through bad planning and tactics, despite an impressive collection of European leaders gathered together in Jerusalem for the task (among them, Queen Melisend (nd), Baldwin III, Conrad, Louis, and Eleanor) the Crusader force failed to liberate Damascus (1148). In their botched attempt they destroyed the military reputation of the Crusaders. The struggle continued after this failure: the Muslim leader Nureddin (1118--74), and his successor and beneficiary, Saladin, united Syria and Egypt under a single dynasty, creating formidable opposition to the Crusaders. Saladin defeated King Guy of Jerusalem (Guy of Lusignan) and a Crusader army at Hattin, near Tiberius (1187), before retaking Jerusalem (2 Oct 1187) and almost every Christian stronghold on the Syrian coast.
Internecine rivalries among the Crusaders continued into the Third Crusade (1189--92), proclaimed by Pope Gregory VIII (pontiff 1187), in which French and German kings, Philip II Augustus and Frederick I Barbarossa, were later joined by King Richard I (the Lionheart) of England. Richard (son of Eleanor of Aquitaine and Henry II) was a very talented soldier, and captured Cyprus en route for Acre while rescuing his fiancée, Berengaria of Navarre (nd), and sister, Joan (nd), from Prince Isaac Comnenus. They had been shipwrecked off Cyprus and found themselves Isaac's prisoners. He succeeded in regaining Acre (Jul 1191), Caesarea, and Jaffa. After defeating Saladin at Arsuf (Sep 1191), Richard almost reached Jerusalem but, forced to return to England to attend to problems caused by his brother John's regency before he could capture it, he concluded a three-year pact with Saladin, which retained for the Crusaders a narrow coastal strip and permitted pilgrim access to Jerusalem. With the further persuasion of St Bernard, the Fourth Crusade (1202--4) was proclaimed by Pope Innocent III. However, this time, at the instigation of the Doge of Venice, Enrico Dandolo, and contrary to Innocent"s wishes, it was directed initially against Zara in Dalmatia and later against Constantinople. The aim was to restore Isaac II Angelus (?--1204) in place of his usurping brother, Alexius III Angelus (?--1211), but the Venetians had long-held, highly acrimonious relations with Greece over Byzantine trade, so their motives were mixed. Following a campaign which saw the capture of Zara, Trieste, the Albanian coast, and the Ionian Is, Isaac was restored to the throne of Constantinople in 1203 alongside his son, Alexius IV Angelus (?--1204). However, Isaac was imprisoned and Alexius killed during a popular Greek revolt (1204), whereupon Dandolo besieged Constantinople. It fell a month later, to be sacked and pillaged. Despite Innocent's urging that the Crusaders proceed to the Holy Land, most did not. Innocent was furious and shocked at the pillaging of the
city, but had lost control of the situation. Dandolo established the Latin Empire (1204--61) under Baldwin I of Flanders, in which lands were dispersed to the Crusaders and to the Latin Patriarch. The presence in Constantinople of Western Christians, represented by the Roman Catholics (Latins), just aggravated long-standing tensions between them and the Greek Orthodox Church. The newly established Latin Empire heralded the final rift between Latin and Greek Churches and the fall of the Byzantine Empire. A minor, but tragic, Crusade took place in 1212 when French and German parish priests exhorted peasant children to form a Crusade. Of some 20 000 children who set out, led by a German boy, Nicholas, none reached the Holy Land; the majority perished on the journey or fell prey to white slavers in the Mediterranean. The story of the Pied Piper of Hamelin is probably based on this event.
The Fifth Crusade (1217--21) was proclaimed by Pope Innocent III at the Fourth Lateran Council in 1215. It was led by John of Brienne (c.1148--1237), King of Jerusalem; Andrew II of Hungary (1175--1235), and Leopold, Duke of Austria (nd). Its aim was to take Egypt but, after three indecisive expeditions into Palestine, the pope replaced John with his legate, Cardinal Pelagius. After a protracted siege (May 1218--Nov 1219), the Nile Delta port of Damietta fell to the Crusaders, following which Pelagius rejected Saladin's offer to exchange the town for Jerusalem. After several further unsuccessful campaigns, including an attack on Cairo (1221), the Crusaders were eventually forced to relinquish Damietta (Aug 1221) in return for a safe withdrawal.
A Sixth Crusade (1228--9), led by Emperor Frederick II of Germany, secured Christian access to the Holy Land through diplomatic negotiation, although Frederick had been excommunicated by Pope Gregory IX (pontiff 1227--41) for his tardy departure. Yolande (Isabella - daughter of John of Brienne), his wife and heiress to the Kingdom of Jerusalem, died in 1228, and Frederick crowned himself King of Jerusalem in the Church of the Holy Sepulchre (1229). With lack of Western support because of his excommunication, Frederick finally lost Jerusalem (1224) to the Khorezmian Turks, refugees from the Mongols and allies of Egypt. The Latin army was defeated near Gaza.
After the final fall of Jerusalem in 1244, the Seventh Crusade (1248--54) was declared by Pope Innocent IV (pontiff 1243--54). It was led by King Louis IX, who left France in the hands of his redoubtable mother, Blanche of Castille. This Crusade was again directed against Egypt. Initial success in recapturing Damietta (1249) was reversed by an indecisive and costly engagement at Mansurah (1250) en route for Cairo. During a belated retreat before the reorganized Muslim forces under the new Sultan of Egypt, Turan-Shah (nd), Louis and many of his attendant nobles were captured. Louis had been forced to attempt to take the town in order to release part of his forces trapped there after an impetuous attack by his brother, Robert of Artois (nd). After the courageous bargaining of his wife, Margaret (1221--95) - who had just given birth to John Tristan - payment of a large ransom, and the surrender of Damietta, Louis was released. Before returning to France, he spent a further four years atoning for his failure by refortifying the Christian defences at Acre, Joppa, Caesarea, and Sidon, and negotiating for the release of prisoners. He also tried unsuccessfully to regain Jerusalem by alliance with the Mongols and the Mameluk Turks, who were descendants of the former slave bodyguards to the Egyptian Sultans.
In 1258, the Mongols occupied Mesopotamia and captured Baghdad, but they in turn were defeated by the Mameluk Turks. The new
Mameluk Sultan of Egypt, Baybars (1223--77), conducted a ruthless and merciless campaign against the Latin states, first taking Arsuf, Caesarea, and Haifa (1265), then Antioch and Joppa (1268). Faced with the Latin states now reduced to a few scattered coastal outposts, Louis felt morally obliged to attempt a further Crusade. On this Eighth Crusade (1270--2), he was again joined by his brother, Charles of Anjou (1226--85), King of Naples and Sicily, and later by Prince Edward of England (later King Edward I). The Crusade was aimed initially at North Africa, and Tunisia was attacked (1270). However, the Crusaders suffered disastrously from disease, which killed both King Louis and his son, John Tristan. Charles arrived by sea with the Sicilian navy and negotiated a treaty for the safe evacuation of the surviving troops. Meanwhile, Prince Edward, who had arrived too late to assist Louis, negotiated an 11-year truce with the Mameluks in Palestine. The remaining Crusader strongholds along the coast were finally destroyed following the capture of Tripoli in 1289 and the fall of Acre in 1291. Europe, though shocked by this loss, was not as shockable as it had been. It had been a predictable defeat. Moreover there were other distractions: France, which had provided the bulwark of the Crusader forces, was embarking on the Hundred Years' War with England; and Europe was entering a lengthy economic recession, exacerbated by population losses through plague. The orders of knights were accordingly less able to maintain standing armies, and the Crusades became a thing of the past.

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The Wars of Karl IX and the disaster at Kirkholm 1605. Sweden Takes Moscow. Karl was the one of the sons who reminded the most of his father. Suspicious, brutal and fast to act he actually surpassed his father in these not to flattering qualities. But he was also even more skillful, inventive and had more initiative.  He founded Göteborg (Gothenburg). He modernized the mining industry by encouraging foreign expert to  move to Sweden. He also kept his taxcollectors in a tight grip, always suspecting them of fiddling to enrich themselves. But problems soon arose. As soon as the polish king Sigismund came back to Poland after the defeat at Stångebro he remembered that he had promised the polacks Estonia. So he gave Estonia to Poland. But Reval (Talinn) didnt want to become polish. The town and the estonian nobility pleaded to Karl IX for protection and he arrived with an army of 13000 men. With this army he entered Livland and plundered. Dorpat fell to the Swedes and in early 1601 the army stood at Duna with only Riga and Kokenkausen left to qounquer. But now the fortune turned. Strong polish forces drove the kings army back and in the defense of Wolmar both Jakob de la Gardie and the kings illegitimate son Karl Karlsson Gyllenhielm were captured. In this precarious situation Karl IX learned of an uprising in Västergötland back in Sweden. He left for Sweden immidietly. The uprising was crushed and he got the counsil to agree to spend more money to buy an army of germans, englishmen, frenchmen and scots. With this army  he returned to Estonia in 1605. He had 16000 men with him. The goal was Riga.
• The disaster at Kirkholm 1605. After initial success the Swedish army faced the polish at Kirkholm close to Riga on the 17th of September in 1605. The swedes were superior with 8368 men and 2500 cavalry men plus 11 guns. After the rainy marsch the troops had to wait for the powder to dry before battle could be joined. The Swedes deployed on a ridge north of Duna. The poles on another ridge opposite the Swedes. In between open ground.The swedish right wing was led by the count of Mansfeld, the center by Anders Lennartsson and the right wing by Henrik Brandt. The swedes stood in four lines . The first with seven battallions of infantry, the second with six battallions of cavalry, the third with six battalions of infantry and the fourth with five battalions of cavalry. The guns in front. The polish commander Chodkiewicz had deployed his much smaller force as follows. The right wing under Johan Sapieha with 650 cavaltymen in two lines, a center in one line under Wojna and a left wing of 1200 cavalrymen under Tomas Dabrowa in four or five lines. A small reserve under Teodor Laski with 200 cavalrymen and 1040 infantrymen in behind. The duke of Kurland soon reinforced the poles with 300 cavalrymen. The polish commander tried to fool the swedes into abandoning their advantagous position on the ridge and to advance into the open ground. After a number of attempts
he succeded. The Swedes had reached as far as a small creek between the ridges when the poles attacked with the battlecry "Jesus Maria". Wojnas cavalry managed to stop the swedish infantry that used pikes and muskets on the attacking cavalry with lances and pistols. The swedish cavalry on the flanks continued against their counterparts. Henrik Brandts cavalrymen were unable to stand against Sapiehas hussars and folded. Karl IX attacked with his cavalry reserve and slammed into Sapiehas unprotected flank. Brandt turned his men and attacked as well. Sapieha retreated. In the mean time Dabrowa had driven Mansfeldts cavalrymen back and was now in pursuit. The interlocked cavalryunits slammed into the swedish infantry that was disrupted and trampled. Wojna and Dabrowa together attacked the swedish infantry that was now trying to deploy for defense at a churchstonewall. Chodkiewicz now ordered Laski to attack Brandts flank with his cavalry and his infantry was to take the church. Laskis furious cavalry attack drove the disorganized swedish cavalry into their own infantry again. Trampled and disrupted as 2000 swedish and polish cavalrymen slammed into them they fought back as best they could. Karl IX had lost his horse and was lightly wounded by a weak swordhack in his head when a estonian nobleman, Hendrich der Wrede, offered him his horse so the king could escape. Wrede was killed. By now the swedish cavalry had fled the field. The abandoned infantry was at the mercy of the poles that offered none. Lennartsson, von Hinkeman and duke Fredrik died with their men with pikes in hands. The massacre resulted in 8000 killed "swedes" (many being foreign mercenaries) according to some sources and 3850 according to others, about 1000 poles were killed as well. The defeat was total regardless of the number of killed swedes. But the impact of hardcharging cavalry was not lost on the Swedes. The experience would greatly effect the tactics of the Swedsh army in the years to come. It is not entirely false to say that within the disaster at Kirkholm lay the seed to the Swedish great power and the miltary system that made it a reality. But the poles were unable to exploit their victory and the war continued back and forth over Livland until 1611 when a cease fire was negotiated without loss of land, this despite that Sweden suffered another equally disastrous defeat at Dunamunde in 1609 and lost severeral  cities. The war was now fought in Russia as well.
• Sweden interferes in Russia. Moscow is entered by the Swedes. A Swedish czar? When the czar Fjodor, son of Ivan the terrible and the last of the czars to descend from swedish vikings, died Russia was plunged into the great disorder. Warlords plundered the land and one wannabe czar after the other struggled for power in bloody contests. In 1606 the czar Vasilij Sjusjkij appealed to Sweden for help in exchange for Kexholms county. His opponents were backed by Poland. The newly released Jakob de la Gardie was given command over an army of finns, scots and frenchmen. He marsched on Volga and after some internal trouble with the foreign mercenaries as well as with the swedish finns Moscow was entered in 1610. Neither Karl XII a hundred years later, Napoleon two hundred years later or Hitler 330 years later was to succeed in this. Jakob de la Gardie marched all the way into the Kreml. But the continued war meant defeats at Klusjino and Ivangorod. Jakob de la Gardie marshed on Smolensk that was threatened by the poles. His foreign mercenaries decided to defect to the enemy and with only a handful of swedes and finns de la Gardie was forced to withdraw. At Viborg he was reinforced and managed to seize Kexholm by siege since it was occupied by russians . De la Gardie continued to Novgorod that was besieged but since the swedes lacked artillery the probability of success was low since the town was surrounded by a strong wall. De la Gardie feinted an assault on one side of the city and managed to blow a gate in the darkness of the 15th of July. Cobrons and Horns cavalry men charged through the gate followed by infantry. The following day when de la Gardie prepared to blow the castles gate the russians surrendered. This victory was important since Karl IX second son Karl Filip was elected czar. But Karl Filip, only 11 years old, arrived to late due to his overprotecting mother. The chain of events had changed the circumstances and the opportunity had passed. Romanov becomes czar. Sweden is now at war in Livland and in Russia. At that time the danish king Kristian IV decides it is time to resurrect the Kalmarunion and declares war. The war in Russia continues however. Evert Horn first takes Kopore, Jama after a brief siege and a smaller victory against a cosackunit and then besiged Ivangorod in 1612 .  Horn continues to Gdov that is siezed. He doesnt manage to sieze Pskov however but returns to Ivangorod that surrenders in December.
• The Kalmarwar with Denmark. Karl IX had a stroke in 1609 and recovered only slowly. Denmarks king Kristian IV saw the time ripe to resurrect the Kalmarunion when the Swedish king was close to death and Sweden engaged in wars in the east. In 1611 two danish armies entered Sweden. One in the east into Småland and one in the west towards Älvsborg. But the old warhorse Karl IX immidietly recovered upon the declaration of war and led his troops south. The danish tried to storm Kalmarcastle but failed, they did take the town however. Kristian IV participated himself. The swedes even managed to reinforce the besieged castle. The 16 year old son of
Karl IX, Gustav Adolf, entered the danish Blekinge and looted and cleverly seized the danish supplydepot in Kristianopel taking 27 danish colours. Karl IX had raised an sizable army of 12000 men and faced the danish in a bloody battle when he attacked the danish camp outside Kalmar. But the swedes were forced to withdraw to Ryssby when a danish fleet with reinforcements appeared. The danes pursued but were repulsed. Öland was taken by the danes but retaken by the Swedes soon after. The swedish kings health deteriorated rapidly. He wrote to Kristian suggesting a duel between the two monachrs to settle the affair but the danish king naturally rejected the idea in a rather contemptous letter. On 30th of October Karl IX died. Sweden was engaged in war in Sweden itself as in the east. The finances were lousy and danger loomed everywhere. The dying king uttered the words "He will do it" i latin, "ille faciet", on his deathbed meaning his son Gustav Adolf. The new young king stood at a crossroads. He could either pursue the goals that had been set by Erik XIV, Johan III and his father Karl IX and finish the work in Livland and Russia. Or he could withdraw and settle for a smaller solution. Gustav Adolf, soon crowned Gustav II Adolf, better known as Gustavus Adolphus in the rest of the world chose to go for the big win. Starting to deal with the danish, continuing with the poles and twenty years later interfering in one of the most hideous of all conflicts ever, the thirty year war, he would be known as the lion from the north. He would make Sweden the great power of northern Europe. Denmarks time as the leading nation in Scandinavia and northern Europe was soon to end. In some decades Denmarks very existance would be threatened.

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Gallic Wars (De Bello Gallico) 58 BC ~ 51 BC, sometimes called The Conquest of Gaul, is an account written by Julius Caesar about his nine years of war in Gaul. In it Caesar vividly describes the battles and intrigues that took place in the nine years he spent slaughtering tribal armies that opposed Roman domination. The "Gaul" that Caesar refers to is sometimes all of Gaul except for the Provincia Narbonensis (modern day Provence), encompassing all of modern France, Belgium and some of Switzerland. In other occasions he refers only to that territory inhabited by the Celts (that Romans called Gauls), from the Channel to Lugdunum (Lyon). The first book describes Gaul and the campaign against the Helvetii, a tribe living just outside Provence in Switzerland, who decided to migrate to the lowland regions of France to the west due to population pressures. This would require moving through either Provence, or areas held by various tribes allied to Rome. When Caesar made it clear he would not allow this, an alliance of various tribes formed to fight him. This drew the Romans out of Provence. Later books are about the campaigns against Veneti, Aquitani, Germans and Bretons; Caesar's invasions of Britain; the insurrection of Gaul (VII, 4) and the defeat of Vercingetorix at Alesia (VII, 89). Campaigns typically started in late summer with the provisioning of grain and construction of fortresses, ending late in the year when Caesar returned to Italy for the winter. He campaigned with a number of legions in his army, sometimes as many as eight. He faced a variety of tribal armies, often hasty alliances of them, some numbering – at least in claim – over 100,000 strong. Many of the campaigns end with the Roman cavalry running down thousands of fleeing tribesmen, often their women and children as well. In one instance he defeated a tribe and immediately sold all 53,000 survivors into slavery. After the second year of campaigning many of the hostile tribes had been decimated and much of Gaul was under Roman control to some degree. By this point any threat to the province, or to Rome itself, was dubious at best. It has been noted that the book could also serve in Caesar's intentions as an answer to his political opponents, who questioned the real need of this costly war, one of the most expensive in their history. Many of the reasons provided clearly stretch the credibility of its readers. For instance, his reasons for invading Britain came down to noting that while fighting in north-west Gaul, local armies were often supported by mercenaries from Britain. campaigns in Gaul led by Julius Caesar in his two terms as proconsul of Cisalpine Gaul, Transalpine Gaul, and Illyricum (58 BC-51 BC). Caesar's first campaign was to prevent the Helvetii (who lived N of the Lake of Geneva) from crossing the Roman territory Provincia (Provence) on their way to a new home in SW Gaul. Inspired by Orgetorix, they had started from the Alps northwestward with Caesar in pursuit, but he split their forces as they crossed the Saône, and pursued them to Bibracte , where he defeated them. In the same year the Aedui asked Caesar's help against the German Ariovistus , whom Caesar routed. In 57 BC, Caesar pacified Belgica (roughly Belgium). In the winter of the same year an anti-Roman confederacy was formed, and in 56 BC Caesar attacked its leaders, the Veneti, who maintained a fleet in what is now the Gulf of Morbihan, Brittany. He defeated them after building ships of his own. In 55 BC, Caesar went to the Low Countries to repel a group of invading Germans and, as a punitive measure, in turn invaded German territory, crossing the Rhine on a bridge he built near Cologne. He then went to Britain on a brief exploring expedition. In 54 BC he invaded Britain and defeated the Britons and their leader Cassivellaunus. The following winter the Roman legions were quartered separately because of the scarcity of food, and some Belgian tribes led by Ambiorix raised a revolt. One legion was utterly defeated and another, under Quintus Cicero , was in dire straits when Caesar arrived and routed the rebels. In 53 BC, Caesar put down another Belgian revolt and entered Germany again. But the real test came when, in the dead of winter, Caesar, in Italy, learned that all central Gaul had raised a revolt, organized by Vercingetorix . With incredible speed and brilliant tactics, Caesar crossed the Alps and suppressed the Gauls. After 51 BC, Caesar moved around Gaul putting down the last signs of disorder. Caesar's Gallic Wars were the theater in which he displayed his abilities, and his organization of the new territory was the seed of modern France. When Caesar became proconsul, he received a wide strip along the Mediterranean beyond the Alps; when he gave up his command, his territory included everything from the Rhine to the Pyrenees, from the Alps to the Atlantic. The prime source of the Gallic Wars is Caesar's own commentaries, De bello Gallico.

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