ContactPage
  LinksPage ContactPage Legal Home Home

Home
 
  Home Page
Return to main site
Famous Warriors
Ancient World Page 1
Famous Warriors
Ancient World Page 2
Famous Warriors
Ancient World Page 3
Famous Warriors
Ancient World Page 4
Warriors Page 2
  Alexander the Great
Greece
  Genghis Khan
Mongols
  Duke of Wellington
England
  Robert The Bruce
Scotland
  The Black Prince
England
  Attila the Hun
Asian
  Lord Nelson
British
  Richard the Lion Heart
England
  Napoleon Bonapart
France
  Joan of Arc
France
Sun Tzu
China
Saladin
Mesopotamia


Home
  Coming Soon
Now Under Development
  Mysterious Mystical Places
Main Page One
  Great Battles
World's Noteable Battles
  Famous Warriors
Ancient World
  Famous Warriors
Modern Days
  Great Leaders
Modern and Historical
  The Inventors
Engineers, Builders, etc.
  Castles
Fortresses of the World.

Home
 
  Home Page
Return to main site
  Ecology
World ecology issues
  Sakura Photo's
Japanese Cherry Blossoms
  Photo-art
Modern photographic art
  Legal
Copy-right details

Home
 
  Home Page
Return to main site
 
 

Updated: June 13, 2004


The greatest Warriors have become infamous and immortal as a result of the great victories they achieved; their bravery, perseverance, determination, cunning, tactics, sacrifices and fortitude have written the stories of their battles and their names on the sand and winds of time. History is kind and forgiving to the victor, but forgetful and blind to those defeated, for it is the victor who is seen as right and just and who will write history to suit their own cause. They have used the power of force of their armies to invade, conquer and control; to eliminate, destroy enemies or force their will upon them, be they individuals or nations; to protect their countries against agressors; and to change the course of history by bestowing power of control upon others or eliminating those that don't agree with them.

Alexander the Great 356-323 BCE The world's first well-known paradigm buster. Alexander rose to power rather quickly, and at an early age. At sixteen years of age, he was already given some large responsibilities. When his father, King Philip, left him in charge while he was away for an extended period of time, one of their colonies revolted. Alexander quickly took hold of the situation and marched troops to the area. Also by the age of sixteen he had founded his first colony and named it Alexandroupolis. He soon showed his power when the large city of Thebes revolted in 335. He stormed the city with mighty force, taking 30,000 as slaves. After his father's murder in June 336 B.C. Alexander became King Alexander III, Alexander became king when he was twenty years old. He soon showed his power when the large city of Thebes revolted in 335. He stormed the city with mighty force, taking 30,000 as slaves. Alexander could never really be the dominate force in his area as long as the Persian ruler Darius III, King of Persia was still living. After beating Persia the second and final time in 332, Darius had managed to survive and fled to the mountains. He died there when he was killed by one of his own noblemen, Bessus. With Darius out of the way, Alexander was crowned King of Persia in November of the same year, and became known as the king of all of Asia. In 327 B.C. Alexander captured a group of rebels and fell in love with the chief's daughter, Roxane. They were married and Roxane soon became pregnant, but the child was stillborn. Due to his constant campaigns Alexander had little time to spend with his wife, and it was four years before she became pregnant again. After marrying Roxane, Alexander invaded India and defeated Porus, the prince of India conquered much territory there. Alexander was now at the height of his power. His empire stretched from the Ionian Sea to northern India. However, Alexander had even greater plans. He wanted to combine Asia and Europe into one country, and named Babylon the new capital. In order to attain this goal he encouraged intermarriages, did away with corrupt officials, and spread Greek ideas, customs, and laws into Asia. Following one bloody battle (which his forces won) his men refused to go any further. Reluctantly Alexander agreed to turn back. He attacked many cities on the march home; during one battle he took an arrow in the chest and almost died. In the winter of 325-324 he returned to Persia. The summer of 325 Alexander became ill, and on June 13 he died in Babylon. He was 32. Modern historians have long suspected that he died from malaria, but recently it has been suggested that the culprit was typhoid fever. They embalmed him and placed his body in a gold sarcophagus which was taken to Memphis, Egypt. Later it was transported to it's final destination, Alexandria.

Home

Genghis Khan (1167?-1227), Mongol conqueror and founder of the Mongol Empire, which spanned the continent of Asia by the time of his death. Born into an influential family in central Mongolia along the Onon River in 1167, or as early as 1155, depending on the account, Genghis Khan received the name Temujin in honor of a Tartar enemy his father admired. He was born on the banks of the Onon River, near the present-day border between northern Mongolia and southeastern Russia. Genghis Khan’s father, Yesugei, was a local chieftain and nephew of the former khan (ruler) of the Mongol tribe. The Mongols had long played the leading role in eastern Mongolia but had lost their supremacy and sunk into comparative insignificance after their defeat in 1161 by a rival tribe, the Tatar, in alliance with the Jin (Chin) rulers of North China. (The name Tatar, or Tartar, was later used by Europeans to refer to the Mongol invaders of Europe in general.) In 1202 Genghis Khan conducted a final campaign against the Tatar, which resulted in the total extermination of that people. Genghis Khan was now in a position to embark upon foreign conquests. Hostilities with China commenced in the spring of 1211, and by the end of that year the Mongols had overrun northern China. By the beginning of 1214 all China north of the Huang He (Yellow River) was in the Mongols’ hands, and they were closing in on the Jin capital at Beijing. Peace was purchased by the Chinese emperor at the price of an immense dowry for a Jin princess as Genghis Khan’s bride, and the invaders began to withdraw northward. However, fighting broke out again almost at once. Beijing was besieged and sacked in the summer of 1215. Genghis Khan’s western territory abutted the state of Khwarizm, a vast but poorly organized empire, ruled by Sultan Muhammad, covering the present-day countries of Turkmenistan, Uzbekistan, and Tajikistan, as well as Afghanistan and most of Iran. War between the two empires became inevitable when Genghis Khan’s ambassadors were murdered at Otrar on the Syr Darya River. Setting out from Mongolia in the spring of 1219, Genghis Khan passed the summer of that year on the Irtysh River and by autumn had arrived before Otrar. He left a force to besiege and ultimately capture the town and, continuing west at the head of the main army, attacked Bukhara (Bukhoro) in February 1220. The city, deserted by its garrison, surrendered after only a few days’ siege. The sultan finally sought refuge on an island in the Caspian Sea but was found and killed there. The generals, continuing their westward sweep, crossed Caucasia and defeated an army of Russians and Kipchak Turks in the Crimea before turning back to rejoin Genghis in Central Asia. In the autumn of 1220, Genghis Khan captured Termiz on the Oxus River (present-day Amu Darya) and in the early part of the winter was active in the upper reaches of that river in what is today Tajikistan. At the beginning of 1221 he crossed the Oxus into northern Afghanistan and captured the ancient city of Balkh. In the autumn of 1226 he was again at war, with the Chinese Tangut tribal confederation, but he did not live to witness the successful outcome of this, his last campaign. He died in August 1227, in his summer quarters in the district of Qingshui south of the Liupan Shan (Liupan Mountains) in Gansu, China.

Home

General Sir Arthur Wellesley (Duke of Wellington), The Iron Duke, General and British Prime Minister, 1769-1851. English Field Marshal, victor (with Blucher) over Napoleon at Waterloo. Arthur Wellesley was born in Dublin, the fifth son of the 1st Earl of Mornington, a nondescript Anglo-Irish peer. After he attended Eton and a French military school, it was decided that he should go into the army in 1787. By strategic use of the purchase system, Wellesley was able to rise extremely quickly from the status of a junior officer to that of lieutenant-colonel of the 33rd Foot at the age of 25. After his regiment was sent to India in 1796 Wellesley began to distinguish himself in the field. He first gained fame by leading the capture of Seringapatam in southern India in 1799. During the subjugation of the Mahrattas, the now-General Wellesley achieved another remarkable victory at Assaye in 1803. Returning to England, Wellesley dabbled in politics before returning to active service in 1807. With the Napoleonic wars raging on the Continent, he arrived in French-occupied Portugal the next year and soon began a string of victories. His success was interrupted briefly by the Convention of Cintra but, following the death of General Moore in 1809, Wellesley took command of the British army in the Iberian Peninsula. From Portugal he launched the Peninsular War, which was ultimately to drive Napoleon's armies from Portugal and Spain. Following his victory at Talavera in 1809, he was created Viscount Wellington and after taking Madrid in 1812 he was raised to a marquessate. After driving the French from the peninsula, Wellington pushed on into France itself until Napoleon, pressed by Wellington in the south and a Prussian/Russian/Austrian alliance in the north and east, was forced to abdicate in 1814. Wellington was roundly lauded as the hero of Europe, but peace was short-lived. In March of 1815 Napoleon escaped from his exile on the island of Elba and once again threatened Europe with conquest. When Wellington and Napoleon met at Waterloo it was a contest of giants. Wellington succeeded in achieving the final defeat of Napoleon in a battle he himself called "the most desperate business I ever was in". With Napoleon at last vanquished, Wellington returned to politics. Though he ultimately served as Prime Minister from 1828 to 1830, he was a notably unpopular politician. His individualistic and essentially unpolitical temperament, combined with a strong indifference to the opinions of others, frequently put him at odds with fellows politicians. As a public figure, however, he remained prominent and respected until his death in 1852, well into the Victorian era.

Home

King Robert the Bruce of Scotland (1274-1329) king of Scotland (1306-29). Robert Bruce is surely the greatest of all the great Scottish heroes, it was the patience and cunning of Bruce that Scotland needed, not the impetuousness of Wallace, especially facing such formidable enemies as the English, first under Edward I and then under his son and heir Edward II. Bruce bided his time; he first had to establish his authority as King of Scotland. By the time of Bannockburn, he was ready. Earl of Carrick, Robert Bruce was born at Turnberry Castle, Ayrshire, in 1274, of both Norman and Celtic ancestry. Two years before his birth, Edward Plantagenet had become King Edward I of England. In 1306 Robert the Bruce was crowned King of the Scots. In 1309 Bruce controlled most of Scotland north of the Firth and Clyde. Over the next few years Bruce conquered the English Garrisons of Perth, Dundee, Roxburgh, Dumfries and St. Andrews, leaving only Stirling in English hands. On 24th June 1314 Robert the Bruce defeated the English army at Bannockburn. The war dragged on until the peace treaty was signed in 1328, recognising Robert the Bruce as King Robert I of Scotland, and Scotland an independent Kingdom. He died the following year.The ruthlessness of Edward, who earned the title "the Hammer of the Scots" brought forth the greatness of Bruce whose astonishing victory at Bannockburn in 1314 over the much larger and better-equipped forces of Edward II ensured Scottish freedom from control by the hated English. Bruce is remembered for finishing the 30 year War of Independence, by finally driving the English out of Scotland. In 1314, a huge English army lead by Edward II, the son of Longshanks and husband of Princess Isabella in Braveheart, headed for Stirling. Edward was no better a general than he was a king. Weak would be the kindest description. Bruce had learned much of Wallace's military skills, had a month to prepare his army, and therefore, at Bannockburn, the English army was routed. Scotland was free at last. Returning in 1307, Robert won a victory at Loudon Hill, which brought him new adherents. Edward I attempted to lead a new expedition against the rebellious Scots but died on the way and was succeeded by his son, Edward II, who failed to pursue his father's vigorous course. Robert was able to consolidate his hold on Scotland and to recapture lands and castles from the English. Stirling was besieged by the Scots and so hard pressed that the English governor finally agreed to its surrender if relief from England did not arrive before June 24, 1314. On June 23 and 24, at nearby Bannockburn , Robert overwhelmingly defeated the large English relief force led by Edward II. The war went on, and in 1318 the Scots recaptured Berwick. A truce, made in 1323, lasted only until 1327, when the bellicose young Edward III led an unsuccessful expedition to the north. Finally, by the Treaty of Northampton (1328), the English recognized the independence of Scotland and the validity of Robert's title to the throne.

Home

Prince Edward of England was called "the Black Prince.", He was born at Woodstock, made Earl of Chester, 1333, Duke of Cornwall, 1337, and created Prince of Wales, 1343. Also called Edward Of Woodstock, and Prince D'aquitaine. He was born on June 15, 1330 and died on June 8, 1376. He was the eldest son of Edward III of England and the father of Richard II. He was one of England's ablest military commanders in the Hundred Years War. The English army was commanded by King Edward III of England and his son the Black Prince. The French were under Philip VI of France. At the battle the small English army of 10,000 defeated the French army of 24,000. The French losses were eleven princes, 1,200 knights, and 8,000 foot soldiers, a total greater than the entire English army. Prince Edward commanded the English forces again at the Battle of Poitiers in 1356. At the Battle of Poitiers 7,000 English defeated 18,000 French, under King John II of France. In 1362, Prince Edward was made ruler of Aquitaine, an English principality in France. (see map below) In 1367, he invaded Spain and won a victory at Najera. In 1370, after a revolt of his French subjects, he sacked the City of Limoges. The Black Prince had become the most feared military commander in Europe. Unfortunately, while fighting in Spain, Prince Edward caught an infection that caused his early death in 1376. Prince Edward, The Black Prince, died before he could become king, but his son Richard inherited the English throne. In 1362 he married Joan of Kent. Their son, became King Richard II and ruled between 1377-99. He was buried in Canterbury Cathedral in the great tomb with his arms above it. Edward the Black Prince Lived from 1330-1376. One of the most famous warriors of the Middle Ages wa Edward the Black Prince. He was so called because he wor black armor in battle The Black Prince was the son of Edward III who reigned over England from 1327 to 1377. He won his fame as a soldier in the wars which his father carried on against France. [Annotate 27.2] You remember that the early kings of England, from the time of William the Conqueror, had possessions in France. Henry II, William's grandson, was the duke of Normandy and lord of Brittany and other provinces, and when he married Eleanor of Aquitaine she brought him that province also. [Annotate 27.3] Henry's son John lost all the French possessions of the English crown except a part of Aquitaine, and Edward III inherited this. So when Philip of Valois (val-wah') became king of France, about a year after Edward had become king of England, Edward had to do homage to Philip.To be king of England and yet to do homage to the king of France—to bend the knee before Philip and kiss his foot—was something Edward did not like. He thought it was quite beneath his dignity, as his ancestor Rollo had thought when told that he must kiss the foot of King Charles. So Edward tried to persuade the nobles of France that he himself ought by right to be the king of France instead of being only a vassal. Philip of Valois was only a cousin of the late French King Charles IV. Edward was the son of his sister. But there was a curious old law in France, called the Salic Law, which forbade that daughters should inherit lands. This law barred the claim of Edward, because his claim came through his mother. Still he determined to win the French throne by force of arms. A chance came to quarrel with Philip. Another of Philip's vassals rebelled against him, and Edward helped the rebel. He hoped by doing so to weaken Philip and more easily overpower him. Philip at once declared that Edward's possessions in France were forfeited. Then Edward raised an army of thirty thousand men, and with it invaded France. The Black Prince was now only about sixteen years of age, but he had already shown himself brave in battle, and his father put him in command of one of the divisions of the army. Thousands of French troops led by King Philip were hurried from Paris to meet the advance of the English; and on the 26th of August, 1346, the two armies fought a hard battle at the village of Crécy.

Home

Attila the Hun King from 434-453 A.D. The fierce and warlike tribe, called the Huns, who had driven the Goths to seek new homes, came from Asia into Southeastern Europe and took possession of a large territory lying north of the River Danube. During the first half of the fifth century the Huns had a famous king named Attila. He was only twenty-one years old when he became their king. But although he was young, he was very brave and ambitious, and he wanted to be a great and powerful king. King and general of the Huns; died 453. Succeeding in 433 to the kingship of Scythian hordes disorganized and enfeebled by internal discords, Attila soon made of his subjects a compact and formidable people, the terror of Europe and Asia. An unsuccessful campaign in Persia was followed in 441 by an invasion of the Eastern Roman Empire, the success of which emboldened Attila to invade the West. He passed unhindered through Austria and Germany, across the Rhine into Gaul, plundering and devastating all in his path with a ferocity unparalleled in the records of barbarian invasions and compelling those he overcame to augment his mighty army. In 451 he was met on the Plains of Chalons by the allied Romans under Actius and the Visigoths under Theodoric and Thorismond, who overcame the Huns and averted the peril that menaced Western civilization. Turning then to Italy, Attila, in the spring of 452, laid waste Aquileia and many Lombard cities, and was approaching Rome, whither Valentinian III had fled before him, when he was met near Mantua by an embassy -- the most influential member of which was Pope Leo I -- which dissuaded Attila from sacking the city.

Home

Lord Admiral Horatio Nelson's great victories at the Nile (1 August 1798) and Copenhagen (2 April 1801) made him an international hero in his own lifetime. From humble birth in a north Norfolk village, a parson's son rose to the highest ranks in the Royal Navy and became a national hero in his own lifetime. From 1793 until his death at the battle of Trafalgar in 1805 he was involved in battle after battle. and he did not escape serious injury during these years. He lost the sight of his right eye at the battle of Calvi in Corsica, and his right arm at Santa Cruz in Tenerife. He lost the sight of his right eye when he was struck in the face during a siege on the island of Corsica in 1794. However the eye itself remained intact, so he never wore an eye-patch. He was hit in the stomach at the Battle of Cape St Vincent in 1797 and suffered from a hernia for the rest of his life. He was badly  wounded in the right elbow while attacking the Spanish island of Tenerife in the  Canaries in 1797 and the arm had to be cut off without anaesthetic. Nelson had great courage and was a brave man as he endured intense pain when his arm was amputated, without an anaesthetic. The surgeon wrote in his diary "Nelson bore the pain without complaint, but was given opium afterwards". After the operation Nelson suggested that the surgeon heated his knives first as the cold knives were more painful! And, finally, he was hit in the head at the Battle of the Nile in 1798 and suffered from concussion for many months afterwards. Nelson was a brilliant tactician, and was always able to surprise his enemies by audacious tactics. At the battle of the Nile in 1798 his daring and courage completely overwhelmed the French when he sailed his ships between the shore and the French Fleet. The French guns that faced the shore were not ready for action, as it was believed that Nelson could not possibly attack from that position! First, and above all, Nelson was extremely brave. He always  led from the front and was always in the thick of the action. At the Battle of  Cape St Vincent, he personally led a boarding party that captured two Spanish  ships At the Battle of Trafalgar he refused to remove the stars of knighthood  from his uniform coat because he did not want to set a bad example. As a result, his men could see that he was prepared to face  danger alongside them, and so they were prepared to follow him into very  hazardous situations. War broke out again with France in 1803, and Nelson was for many months on watch in the Mediterranean. On October 20th 1805 the French and Spanish fleets put to sea, and off the southern coast of Spain the battle of Trafalgar took place. This was to be Nelson's last and most famous victory. It was at the height of the battle that Nelson was shot as he paced the deck of his ship Victory. He was easily recognisable by the marksmen on the French ships as he was wearing his full dress uniform and all his medals, and seemed impervious to the danger he was in. Nelson was a born leader. He was not in fact a  tactical innovator: most of his ideas had already been tried in earlier battles.  But he was able to turn those ideas into simple and inspiring battle-plans which he then communicated to his captains. He had strong charisma, and an infectious enthusiasm, and so was able to inspire people to follow him. As his ships were sailing into battle at Trafalgar he raised the spirits of his men at exactly the right psychological moment with his famous signal: 'England expects that  every man will do his duty'. When he was killed, at the height of the Battle of Trafalgar (21 October 1805). He died shortly after he was taken below decks and his body was taken ashore at Rosia Bay in Gibraltar. His body was sent back to England in a barrel full of brandy which acted as a preservative during the long journey home. The whole nation was plunged into mourning and he was given a  grand State Funeral and a splendid tomb in St Paul's Cathedral.

Home

Richard Coeur de Lion, or Richard Lion-Heart, (1157-99), King of England, was the third son of Henry II and Eleanor of Aquitaine. Richard received the duchy of Aquitaine and county of Poitou, part of the Angevin continental possessions, enthroned as Duke of Aquitaine in 1172, which remained the sphere of his primary interest to the end of his life. With his auburn hair, handsome physique, he was extremely tall (over 6', which was a rare height then) he also had long arms and legs, and being exceptionally brave and extremely strong, he was destined to be favoured and loved by many. He was, like his brothers Henry and Geoffrey, discontented with his lack of authority and joined their revolt of 1173-74 against their father. Later he fought against the same brothers when they intervened in support of a rebellion against him in Aquitaine. In 1189 he again warred with his father and defeated him. Henry II's death brought him to the English throne in 1189, but soon after his coronation he set out in 1190 on the Third Crusade. En route he captured Messina and Cyprus and married in 1191 Berengaria of Navarre. Before he landed in Palestine, Richard infuriated the Germans by interfering in the affairs of Sicily and his plans to marry his nephew, Arthur of Brittany, to the daughter of Sicilian king. In 1191 he conquered Cyprus, which was finally sold to Guy of Lusignan, who, the previous month, had been displaced as King of Jerusalem by Conrad of Montferrat. Later the same year he captured Acre with Guy of Lusignan and Philip II of France from the Saracens under Saladin. Under the terms of the agreement for the Muslim surrender of Acre, Saladin was to return the relic of the True Cross and Christian prisoners were to be exchanged for Muslim hostages. However, progress was slow and Richard finally lost patience and massacred some 2,700 Muslims in sight of Saladin's army. Richard and his allies gave the city to the Knights Hospitalers, and for the next century it was the chief Christian possession in the Holy Land. After Acre, Philip II returned to France, where he began plotting against Richard with the latter's brother John. Although in January 1192, Richard was within sight of Jerusalem after taking Bait Nûbâ, the Templars showed their usual caution and preferred not to continue, after all they were happy with what the had, and didn't want the risk of more losses, as they remembered their loss of Gerard of Ridefort in 1189. Richard remained in the Holy Land but had to abandon his attempt to seize the strongly fortified city of Jerusalem. Richard had shown such courage during battles always the first to attack and the last to retreat, he was described as the 'most remarkable ruler of his times'. This is where he gained the title Coeur-de-Lion, Lionheart. Saladin was so impressed by his bravery and skills of warfare that during one battle when Richard had lost his horse, Saladin sent him his own personal stallion. After concluding a treaty with Saladin that allowed Christians access to the holy places of Jerusalem, he too started home. However, he was captured in December 1192 by Leopold V of Austria, his sworn enemy, with whom he had quarrelled on crusade, and was imprisoned in the castle of Durnstein, where the troubadour Blondel de Nesle is supposed to have found him. Leopold delivered Richard to Holy Roman Emperor Henry VI, who released him in 1194 only after Richard paid an enormous ransom, 150,000 marks of silver, raised by his English subjects, and surrendered his kingdom, receiving it back as a fief of the Holy Roman Empire. Richard returned briefly to England to complete the suppression of the revolt raised against him by his brother John and to raise funds. He returned to England in early 1194. After a ceremony at Winchester Cathedral (17 Apr 1194)4, Richard departed for Normandy, where he waged war on Philippe II of France. He was responsible for building the famous Chateau Gaillard. He was wounded by a crossbow bolt during the siege of Châlus and died without legitimate heirs in the 42nd year of his age. Richard was buried at Fontrevault, and his heart was removed from his corpse and buried in Rouen. Although he was an absentee king whose influence on England arose from his neglect of it. Not speaking English, his eternal love of France, he forced himself to stay in England as required. He devoted his life to fighting and the art of war, fighting burned within him with a passion. It is said that he spent no more than 10 months in total of his 10 year reign within England. His passion for war, and having an outstanding understanding as a military engineer he wanted nothing more than to fight, and prove his prowess as a warlord. He had been engaged in fighting from the age of fifteen and had proved to be a great and gallant warrior. By the time he made King, he was 31 years of age, and he had mastered all the weapons of the day including, sword, shield, lance, bow, horse, catapult, tactics, maps and mapping, ships, castle designs, etc, etc, but he wanted more.

Home

Napoleon Bonaparte was born of lower noble status in Ajaccio, Corsica on August 15, 1769. One of the greatest military commanders and a risk taking gambler; a workaholic genius and an impatient short term planner; a vicious cynic who forgave his closest betrayers; a misogynist who could enthrall men; Napoleon Bonaparte was all of these and more, the twice-emperor of France whose military endeavors and sheer personality dominated Europe in person for a decade, and in thought for a century. Montenotte, Mondovi, Arcola and Rivoli, Bonaparte swept the board of ageing Austrian generals and established himself as one of the leading soldiers of his time. Desperate to be both at Britain and pushing his own reputation, Bonaparte planned an expedition to Egypt to threaten his foe's trading routes. He sailed from Toulon in 1798 and, after capturing Malta, made it to Egypt in early July. The campaign began brilliantly when he smashed the power of the ruling Mamelukes at the Battle of the Pyramids, but was crippled when Nelson's hound-pack fleet finally caught up with the French navy at Aboukir (Battle of the Nile) and sank all but four of the 17-ship force. Stranded and with suspect supply lines, Bonaparte moved into Syria and won the battle of Mt Tabor before being halted by fierce and stubborn resistance at Acre. Stricken with disease and wary of a mass revolt in Cairo, the French made a horrendous march through the deserts of the Sinai, but arrived at Aboukir in good enough condition to crush another Turkish force. Realising the potential success of his campaign was now limited, if not impossible, Bonaparte decided to abandon his army and get back to the centre of power - Paris - and make sure his position had not been undermined. The next stage in Bonaparte's career came in 1800, when he again moved into Italy with another brilliant manouevre that saw him lead the French army over the Alps and surprise the occupying Austrians. It almost proved to be a blunder - as Bonaparte was in turn caught by surprise at the tenacity of General Melas who attacked him at Marengo. Holding on for grim life the situation was saved for Bonaparte by General Louis Desaix's arrival with reinforcements and what was a lost battle became a stunning victory for the First Consul. In 1804, the general felt confident and secure enough to declare himself Emperor and the next day created the Marshalate for his most trusted and talented soldiers. While affairs within France were on a high, Bonaparte committed a serious error when the determined Duc d'Enghien, a Royalist figurehead, was kidnapped from neutral Baden, tried without a lawyer defending him and then executed. The event turned Europe's monarchies forever against him and led to the formation of the Third Coalition to try to bring down his regime. Bonaparte reacted by amassing a huge army - the first Grande Armee - on the coastline of Europe with the intention of invading Britain but, fortunately for those opposing him, he was never given the opportunity as Admiral Horatio Nelson smashed his naval ambitions at Trafalgar in 1805. The French won the battles of Abensberg and Eckmuhl, almost lost Aspern-Essling after Bonaparte's advanced units became trapped against the flooded Danube River with the entire Austrian army bearing down on them, and then defeated Charles at Wagram. Peace followed and was cemented when Bonaparte, now divorced from Josephine, married Marie-Louise of Austria. Bonaparte was hoping to force a decisive battle soon after entering Russia, but the defenders traded space for time by reteating. There were bloody, but indecisive, battles at Smolensk and Borodino and, when the French finally reached Moscow, they found that the Russians had preferred to set fire to it rather than let the French have it. Still hoping for peace negotiations, Bonaparte delayed leaving the capital for too long and on his march back to France disaster hit the Grande Armee. Appalling cold, lack of supplies and constant attacks by Russian forces whittled away the once-magnificent army so that when it finally stumbled out of Russia its survivors numbered fewer than 20,000. Seeing the French almost on their knees the revenge-seeking Prussians broke their alliance with Paris and, together with Sweden, joined the Tsar's campaign to kick the French out of Germany. The 1813 Campaign through Germany saw a weakened Bonaparte fight and win the battles of Lutzen, Bautzen and Dresden, but the sheer weight of numbers caught up with him at Leipzig, where some 200,000 Frenchmen took on 400,000 enemy troops in a massive three-day battle. Defeated, and his forces also facing an unbeaten and advancing British army in Spain, Bonaparte gathered strength for his last roll of the die - the battle for France. The following campaign saw Bonaparte return to his brilliant best and he won battle after battle with weak and inexperienced forces pitted against seasoned and seemingly innumerable enemies. Finally, however, the numbers told and he was forced to abdicate by his marshals on 6 April 1814. He gave a final farewell to his Old Guard at Fontainbleau on 20 April and chose 600 men to go into exile with him on Elba. On the island Bonaparte plotted his return and taking advantage of lax security and in the knowledge there was a growing resentment of the restored Bourbons and Louis XVIII, he landed in France in early March of 1815. Despite being branded an Enemy of Humanity by his enemies, the French people flocked to him and within months he had rebuilt his army for the expected arrival of the armies of Russia, Prussia, Austria, Sweden and Britain. Rather than wait he launched a lightning campaign into Belgium in the hope of catching the British, under the Duke of Wellington, and the Prussians, under Field Marshal Blucher, off guard. The plan worked, but a series of command errors by subordinates blew the opportunities offered and despite victory at Ligny and a tactical draw at Quatre Bras, he was defeated at Waterloo. Exiled a second time, the man who ruled Europe spent his last six years on a small island in the South Atlantic called St Helena. His death in 1821 brought relief to the royal houses of Europe and it was only in 1840 that his body was allowed to return to his beloved France.

Home

Saint Joan was born on January 6, 1412, in the village of Domremy to Jacques and Isabelle d'Arc. On the evening of February 23, 1429, she began her mission for God. In the company of six men, she rode through the Gate of France on her way to Chinon. Joan reached this town on March 6th, but was not received by the Dauphin, Charles, until the evening of March 9th. After being accepted and approved by a Church council headed by the Archbishop of Reims, Joan was allowed to lead the Dauphin's army. Returning to Chinon, Joan made her preparations for the campaign. Instead of the sword the king offered her, she begged that search might be made for an ancient sword buried, as she averred, behind the altar in the chapel of Ste-Catherine-de-Fierbois. It was found in the very spot her voices indicated. This part of her career was meteoric. Before entering upon her campaign, Joan summoned the King of England to withdraw his troops from French soil. The English commanders were furious at the audacity of the demand, but Joan by a rapid movement entered Orléans on 30 April. Her presence there at once worked wonders. By 8 May the English forts which encircled the city had all been captured, and the siege raised, though on the 7th Joan was wounded in the breast by an arrow. The Loire campaign started on June 9th and by June 19th the English were driven out of the Loire valley. The march to Reims started on June 29th and by July 17th Charles was crowned King of France in the cathedral of Reims. From this time on, for reasons know only to King Charles, the king no longer valued Joan's advice and guidance. She had always told him that God had given her 'a year and a little longer' to accomplish His will but the king seemed to take no notice of it. For almost a year he wasted what time remained to Joan, until in frustration, she left the court. Her last campaign lasted from the middle of March until her capture at the town of Compiegne on May 23rd, 1430. Her 'year and a little longer' was over. Abandoned by her king and friends, she started her year of captivity. As a prisoner of the Burgundians she was treated fairly but that all changed when on November 21st, 1430, she was handed over the English. How she survived their harsh treatment of her is a miracle in itself. The English not only wanted to kill Joan but they also wanted to discredit King Charles as a false king by having Joan condemned by the Church as a witch and a heretic. To obtain this goal the English used those Church authorities whom they knew to be favorable to them and the staunchest of these was Bishop Cauchon. Joan's trial of condemnation lasted from February 21st until May 23rd. She was finally burnt at the stake in Rouen's market square on May 30th, 1431. Joan's creativity as a warrior is not to be found in the fact that she was a woman. It was not uncommon for women of her time to fight in battles. In poorer villages, women often fought alongside their husbands as a necessity. Even in the siege of Orleans, which Joan helped lift, women were of paramount importance in defending the city, pouring hot oil and ashes on attackers. Despite her reputation as a warrior, Joan testified at her trial that she never killed a man. She preferred carrying her standard herself during attacks to avoid killing anyone. But Joan also knew that she had to do more than pray; she participated as well. Among other things, Joan led charges herself, and rallied the men during battle in person. She constantly reminded others that they would have to work hard in order to beat the English. Joan of Arc's true creativity as a warrior came in her use of artillery, a new invention at her time. Alençon, a fellow commander and admirer, singled out Joan's grasp of artillery in his tribute to her military ability: "and especially in the placing of artillery, for in that she acquitted herself magnificently." Joan was a leader because she was good at leading (of course, she credits her inspiration by the Lord for her success). Joan had the ability to get soldiers and captains to listen to her and do as she wanted them to do. She achieved this through her self-confidence, her determination, and her courage.

Home

Sun Tzu [circa 400-320 B.C.], means simply "Master Sun" in Chinese, was a native of the Ch`i (Qi) State in Eastern China, what is today the Shandong area. The surname "Sun" was bestowed on Sun Tzu's grandfather by Duke Ching of Ch`i [547-490 B.C.]. Sun Tzu's father, Sun P`ing, rose to be a Minister of State in Ch`i, and Sun Tzu himself, whose style was Ch`ang-ch`ing, fled to Wu on account of a rebellion. Sun Tzu was a contemporary of the great philosopher Confucius Qi, in Eastern China. During his life, China was being torn apart by a series of wars as lesser states fought for dominance. He wrote the “The Art of War” in thirteen chapters for King Helu of Wu and he was subsequently made a general of the Kings armies. He led an army westwards, crushed the Ch`u state in 512 BC and entered Ying the capital. In the north, he kept Ch`i and Chin in awe. Sun Tzu had a dramatic affect on Chinese history. After his hiring, the kingdom of Wu went on to become the most powerful state of the period.  His descendant, Sun Pin, born about a hundred years after his famous ancestor's death, was also an outstanding military genius of his time. So historically, there were two "Master Suns" involved with the military treatise. Sun Wu (544-496 BC) was the original author. His descendant, Sun Ping (or Bing) (380-316 BC), worked for the state of Ch’i and added to and popularized his own version of the work. Sun Tzu supposedly died when King Helu was killed in 496 BC, but since the military success of Wu continued after that year, stories of his death may have been exaggerated for political reasons.

Home

Saladin - Salah al-Din Yusuf ibn Ayyub, (1138-1193) , the great Muslim warrior and the first Ayyubid Sultan of Egypt was born in Mesopotamia of Kurdish descent. Saladin was born in 1138 in Tikrit, Mesopotamia. His career falls into three parts, his conquests in Egypt 1164-1174, the annexation of Syria 1174-1187, and lastly the destruction of the Latin kingdom and subsequent campaigns against the Christians, 1187-1192. A great opponent of the Crusaders, he lived for ten years in Damascus at the court of Nur ad-Din, where he distinguished himself by his interest in Sunni theology. He accompanied his uncle, Shirkuh, a lieutenant of Nur ad-Din, on the campaigns of 1164, 1167, 1168 against the Fatimid rulers of Egypt. Shirkuh became Vizier there and on his death in 1169 was succeeded by Saladin. Saladin later caused the name of the Shiite Fatimid caliph to be dropped from the Friday prayer, thus deposing him. After the death of Nur ad-Din, who was planning to campaign against his too-powerful subordinate, Saladin proclaimed himself sultan of Egypt, thus beginning the Ayyubid dynasty. He spread his conquests westward on the northern shores of Africa as far as Qabis and also conquered Yemen. He took over Damascus after Nur ad-Din's death and undertook to subdue all Syria and Palestine. He had already come into conflict with the Crusaders, and he put the rulers of the Latin Kingdom of Jerusalem on the steadily weakening defensive. He was unsuccessful in his efforts to conquer the Assassins in their mountain strongholds, but he took Mosul, Aleppo, and wide areas from rival Muslim rulers and became the principal warrior of Islam. Gathering a large force of Muslims of various groups - all called Saracens by contemporary western Europeans - he set out to attack Christian outposts. In 1187 a four years' truce was broken by the brilliant brigand Renaud de Chatillon and thus began Saladin's third period of conquest. In May he cut to pieces a small body of Templars and Hospitallers at Tiberias, and, on July 4th, inflicted a crushing defeat upon the united Christian army at Hittin. He then overran Palestine, on September zoth besieged Jerusalem and on October and, after chivalrous clemency to the Christian inhabitants, crowned his victories by entering and purifying the Holy City. In the kingdom only Tyre was left to the Christians. He defeated Christian forces in the great battle of Hattin near Tiberias, capturing Guy of Lusignan and Reginald of Chatillon, and the city of Jerusalem. The Third Crusade was organised in 1189 and travelled to the Holy Land to try to recover the Holy City. Thus it was that Richard I of England and Saladin met in the conflict that was to be celebrated in later chivalric romance. The reputation that Saladin had among the Christians for his generosity and chivalry does not seem to have been a legend, and there seems no doubt that Saladin admired Richard as a worthy opponent. The Crusaders, however, failed in their purpose and succeeded only in capturing Akko. On the 8th of June 1191 Richard of England arrived, and on the 12th of July Acre capitulated without Saladin's permission. Richard followed up his victory by an admirably ordered march down the coast to Jaffa and a great victory at Arsuf. In 1192, Saladin came to agreement with the Crusaders upon the Peace of Ramla, which left the Latin Kingdom only a strip along the coast from Tyre to Yafo. Saladin's lack of a fleet enabled the Christians to receive reinforcements and thus recover from their defeats by land. During 1191 and 1192 there were four small campaigns in southern Palestine when Richard circled round Beitnuba and Ascalon with Jerusalem as objective. In January 1192 he acknowledged his impotence by renouncing Jerusalem to fortify Ascalon. Negotiations for peace accompanied these demonstrations, which showed that Saladin was master of the situation. Though in July Richard secured two brilliant victories at Jaffa, the treaty made on the 2nd of September was a triumph for Saladin. Only the coast line was left to the Latin kingdom, with a free passage to Jerusalem; and Ascalon was demolished. The union of the Mahommedan East had beyond question dealt the death-blow to the Latin kingdom. Richard returned to Europe, and. Saladin returned to Damascus, where on the 4th of March 1193, after a few days illness, he died. He was buried in Damascus.

Home
  LinksPage ContactPage Legal Home Home

Copywrite StevenRedhead.Com 2004 - All rights Reserved